Friday, 8 September 2017

Did Hanumana Really Burn Down Lanka - Part 2

Although today Hanumana is worshiped as a god, with divine qualities, if we look at his overall character, including his behavior, psyche, and thought process, they are very human-like in nature. In a previous article, I have talked about his devotion towards Rama from a very human-like perspective[1], as opposed to the common notion of Hanumana’s devotion for Rama arising from Rama’s “divinity”. However, one problem many people have in accepting that Hanumana was a normal human being is the instance where he burned down Lanka. How can a normal human being sustain a flame burning on his body part, and then use this burning body part to burn down an entire city? It does seem far fetched for a human being to do that, doesn’t it? However, what if I were to say that Hanumana never burned down the city of Lanka?
In Part 1[2] of the series “Did Hanumana Really Burn Down Lanka”, I analyzed text from Sundara Kanda Sections 50–56, where Hanumana supposedly burned down Lanka, as well as later references in Yuddha Kanda. This analysis allowed me to effectively propose that the burning of Lanka by Hanumana was a later addition to the epic by pro-Hanumana poets. Then, I concluded that post, by giving the following brief summary of the major events that transpired in Lanka, from Hanumana’s capture by Indrajita to his later escape from Lanka:
1. Indrajita captures Hanumana by making him unconscious using his brahmastra, and then brings Hanumana to Ravana's Sabha. Upon regaining consciousness, Hanumana is enraged at his capture.
2. Ravana's minister Prahasta asks Hanumana about the cause for the destruction he caused in Lanka, and his identity. Hanumana gives his identity and tells Ravana to return Seetha. An enraged Ravana gives death penalty to Hanumana.
3. Vibhishana tells Ravana that a messenger should not be slain, hence Ravana changes Hanumana's punishment to being paraded through the crossroads in Lanka, and then having his penis severed, and thrown out of Lanka. 
4. Hanumana initially gets enraged at hearing this, but decides to play along and willingly goes with the guards all across Lanka. He planned that when he is taken to the gate of the Lanka fort, he will inspect it for details, then kill the guards and exit Lanka. 
5. Hanumana does just that. Upon reaching the gate of the Lanka fort, he kills off the guards. Then he causes some damage to the exterior walls of the Lanka fort, the moats, and the bridges. Note that the guards would have just severed Hanumana's penis, and then thrown him out of the entrance of Lanka. But prior to them being able to take action, Hanumana killed them off. 
6. After doing all this damage, he quickly escapes from Lanka and swims the ocean, back to the Vindhya Mountain range where he meets his fellow Vanaras and tells them about his exploits in Lanka. He was able to escape from the entrance of the fort as there were very few demon guards in the area. It was a relatively secluded place.
If you have not read Part 1 of this series, I would suggest doing so prior to reading this article, as it would make understanding this article much more easier.

Now that you have read Part 1, it should be clear from the cross reference in Yuddha Kanda Section 3 that after reaching the Lanka fort gate and killing off the demon gaurds, Hanumana destroyed the exterior walls of the fort, as well as the moat and bridges and then fled from Lanka. What I forgot to mention in that post was that this theory is supported by the initial verses of Sundara Kanda Section 54, right after Hanumana kills the demon guards. After Hanumana kills the demon guards and is at the Lanka fort gates, Valmiki says:

वीक्षमाणः ततो लन्काम् कपिः कृत मनो रथः |वर्धमान समुत्साहः कार्य शेषम् अचिन्तयत् || ५-५४-१
Then, after fulfilling his heart's wish, Hanuma, looking over Lanka, thought about the remaining act to be done, with an augmented energy.
किम् नु खल्व् अविशिष्टम् मे कर्तव्यम् इह साम्प्रतम् |यत् एषाम् रक्षसाम् भूयः सम्ताप जननम् भवेत् || ५-५४-२
"Which act indeed is remaing now to be done by me here, that may further create anguish to these demons?"
वनम् तावत् प्रमथितम् प्रकृष्टा राक्षसा हताः |बल एक देशः क्षपितः शेषम् दुर्ग विनाशनम् || ५-५४-३
"I have demolished the garden. I have killed excellent demons. I destroyed a portion of the army. The demolition of the fort is still remaining."
दुर्गे विनाशिते कर्म भवेत् सुख परिश्रमम् |अल्प यत्नेन कार्ये अस्मिन् मम स्यात् सफलः श्रमः || ५-५४-४
"When the fort gets destroyed, the task (of Rama's battle) will be devoid of fatigue. Even with a small effort in this task, the work will become fruitful."
यो हि अयम् मम लान्गूले दीप्यते हव्य वाहनः |अस्य सम्तर्पणम् न्याय्यम् कर्तुम् एभिः गृह उत्तमैः || ५-५४-५
"It is justified to satisfy this blazing flame on my tail, by feeding it to the full, with these excellent houses (in the city of Lanka)."
Sundara Kanda Section 54[3]
The context of these verses, is that Hanumana had killed off the demon guards parading him through the city of Lanka, and was then at the gates of the Lanka fort. At that point, the wise decision was to cause as much damage to the exterior of the fort, which is mentioned by Hanumana in the first four verses. However, we see a drastic change in plan in the fifth verse. He changes his mind from destroying the external part of the fort, to going back into the fort and destroying the houses and palaces in Lanka. This is clearly an inconsistency, and therefore, this verse and all subsequent verses till the end of Sundara Kanda Section 56 are later additions to the epic, as I had previously mentioned in Part 1 of this series!

Keep in mind that Lanka was a fort city, meaning that the entire city was encased in a fort. Inside of the fort, all the houses and palaces were situated. So destroying the fort is not the same as destroying the houses and palaces in the fort. Destroying the fort would mean destroying the exterior defenses, as opposed to the internal objects inside the fort such as the houses. So there was no reason for Hanumana to go into the fort and burn the internal houses and palaces when he had already made a decision to destroy simply the external defenses of the fort, such as the exterior fort wall, moat, and bridges that spanned the length of the water in the moat.

Image result for moat image
That being said, a few problems people may have with this theory are the following:
1. There are cross references to Hanumana burning down Lanka, from both Hanumana and Kumbhakarna, in Sundara Kanda and Yuddha Kanda, respectively. How would you explain this?
2. Why did Ravana give an order to severe Hanumana’s penis? If it was to subdue Hanumana’s manliness, there are other symbols of manliness in one’s body such as the mighty arms, and thighs of an individual. Why was the punishment directed specifically at Hanumana’s penis?
3. What was the actual purpose behind adding interpolations into Sundara Kanda of Hanumana burning down Lanka?
This second part of the series is dedicated to answering these very valid questions that might arise in the mind of any curious reader. To do so, I will divide my post into multiple subsections, making it easier to follow these questions, and my response to them.

Cross References to Burning of Lanka in Valmiki Ramayana — By Hanumana

The first cross reference we find to Hanumana burning down Lanka is in Sundara Kanda itself. After Hanumana, finds Seetha, and manages to escape from Lanka, he crosses the ocean, and meets his fellow Vanaras at the shore, close to the Vindhya Mountain Range. He then tells them all that transpired in Lanka. He even describes the burning of Lanka:
तेन वध्यो अहम् आज्ञप्तो रक्षसा रौद्र कर्मणा |
मत्र्पभावमविज्ञाय रावणेन दुरात्मना || ५-५८-१४४

"Without knowing my glory ( in the form of my immunity to death), the evil-minded Ravana, the demon doing terrific acts, ordered for my killing."

ततो विभीषणो नाम तस्य भ्राता महामतिः |
तेन राक्षस राजो असौ याचितो मम कारणात् || ५-५८-१४५

"Then, there is the brother of that Ravana, called Vibhishana having a great intelligence. He entreated Ravana, the king of demons, on my behalf (as follows)"

नैवम् राक्षसशार्दूल त्यज्यतामेष निश्चयः |
राजशास्त्रव्यपेतो हि मार्गः संसेव्यते त्वया || ५-५८-१४६

"O Ravana the foremost among the demons! No such attempt should be made in this way. Let this design be abandoned forthwith. Your are indeed following a path which is contrary to the statesmanship."

दूत वध्या न दृष्टा हि राज शास्त्रेषु राक्षस |
दूतेन वेदितव्यम् च यथा अर्थम् हित वादिना || ५-५८-१४७

"O Ravana! It is not indeed found in states' policies of killing an envoy. The real truth is to be known from an envoy speaking a good counsel."

सुमहति अपराधे अपि दूतस्य अतुल विक्रमः |
विरूप करणम् दृष्टम् न वधो अस्ति इह शास्त्रतः || ५-५८-१४८

"O Ravana of great prowess! Even if a very high offence is committed by an envoy, an act of disfiguring the person is mentioned in a treatise of state-policy and not of killing."

विभीषणेन एवम् उक्तो रावणः संदिदेश तान् |
राक्षसान् एतत् एव अद्य लान्गूलम् दह्यताम् इति || ५-५८-१४९

"Hearing the words of Vibhishana, Ravana ordered those demons to burn my penis by fire."

ततः स्तस्य वचः श्रुत्वा मम पुच्छम् समन्ततः |
वेष्टितम् शण वक्लैः च पटैः कार्पासकैः तथा || ५-५८-१५०

"Thereupon, hearing Ravana's words; the demons wrapped up my entire penis with bark of hemp and torn cotton-clothes."

राक्षसाः सिद्ध सम्नाहाः ततः ते चण्ड विक्रमाः |
तत् आदीप्यन्त मे पुच्छम् हनन्तः काष्ठ मुष्टिभिः || ५-५८-१५१
बद्धस्य बहुभिः पाशैः यन्त्रितस्य च राक्षसैः |

"Thereafter, the demons of terrible prowess, who completed their arrangements, striking me with their wooden staffs and fists, burnt my penis. Eventhough I was bound with many ropes, I maintained restraint."

ततः ते राक्षसाः शूरा बद्धम् माम् अग्नि सम्वृतम् || ५-५८-१५२
अघोषयन् राज मार्गे नगर द्वारम् आगताः |" 
Then, having reached the city-gate, those strong demons made a loud proclamation of my presence in the principal streets, bound and enveloped in flames as I was." 
ततो अहम् सुमहत् रूपम् सम्क्षिप्य पुनः आत्मनः || ५-५८-१५३
विमोचयित्वा तम् बन्धम् प्रकृतिस्थः स्थितः पुनः |
आयसम् परिघम् गृह्य तानि रक्षांसि असूदयम् || ५-५८-१५४

"Then, after contracting my gigantic form once more and releasing my bondage, I stood in my native form again. Seizing an iron bar, I killed those demons."

ततः तन् नगर द्वारम् वेगेन आप्लुतवान् अहम् |
पुच्छेन च प्रदीप्तेन ताम् पुरीम् साट्ट गोपुराम् || ५-५८-१५५
दहामि अहम् असम्भ्रान्तो युग अन्त अग्निः इव प्रजाः |

"Then, I quickly jumped on to that city-gate and without any bewilderment, I set fire that city with its attics, ramparts and gates with my penis inflamed, even as a fire at the end of the world, burns all living creatures."

विनष्टा जानकी व्यक्तम् न ह्यदग्धः प्रदृश्यते || ५-५८-१५६
लङ्कायाम् कश्चिदुद्देशः सर्वा भस्मीकृता पुरी |
दहता च मया लन्काम् दघ्दा सीता न संशयः || ५-५८-१५७
रामस्य हि महत्कार्यम् मयेदम् वितथीकृतम् |

"The entire Lanka has been reduced to ashes. No place is seen unburnt in this City. Therefore Seetha also must have been surely burnt."

इति शोकसमाविष्टश्चन्तामहमुपागतः || ५-५८-१५८
अथ अहम् वाचम् अश्रौषम् चारणानाम् शुभ अक्षराम् |
जानकी न च दग्धा इति विस्मय उदन्त भाषिणाम् || ५-५८-१५९

"Thus filled with grief, I came about to reflect as above. Meanwhile, I heard the auspiciously worded utterance of charanas the celestial signers who were narrating a tale of astonishment saying that Seetha has not been burnt."

ततो मे बुद्धिः उत्पन्ना श्रुत्वा ताम् अद्भुताम् गिरम् |
अदग्धा जानकीत्येवम् निमित्तैश्चोपलक्षिता || ५-५८-१६०

"After hearing those surprising words, a thought arose in me that Seetha escaped being burnt. This indicated by the following good omens: 
दीप्यमाने तु लाङ्गूले न माम् दहति पावकः |
हृदयम् च प्रहृष्टम् मे वाताः सुरभिगन्धिनः ५-५८-१६१

"In the first place, even though me tail is burning, the fire is not burning my body. My heart too is delighted. The winds are sweet-smelling." 
तैर्निमित्तैश्च दृष्टार्थैः कारणैश्च महागुणैः |
ऋषिवाक्यैश्च सिद्धार्थैरभवम् हृष्टमानसः || ५-५८-१६२
"My heart was delighted by seeing those good omens having their fruits apparent, by looking into the their fruits apparent, by looking into the reasons of high characteristics and by hearing the words of accomplished sages."
पुनः दृष्टा च वैदेही विसृष्टः च तया पुनः |
ततः पर्वतमासाद्य तत्ररिष्तमहम् पुनः || ५-५८-१६३
प्रतिप्लवनमारेभे युष्मद्दर्शनकांक्षया |
"Seeing Seetha once more, relieved by her again and then reaching the Mount Arishta there again, I started leaping back (over the sea) with a longing to see you (all)."
Sundara Kanda Section 58[4]
As we can see in the text above, Hanumana does mention that he did burn down Lanka. However, I think a deeper analysis of his speech is necessary. For this kind of analysis, I would first advise you to thoroughly read one of my previous posts, titled “An Analysis of Hanumana’s Bhakti for Rama”[1]. In that post, I talked about the nature of Hanumana’s character and the type of person he was. Below, I am posting an excerpt from that article:
So, the third reason why Hanumana had bhakti for Rama was because of the sensual relationship he shared with Rama. He was more of a feminine personality that looked upto the more dominant, masculine Rama. In addition to his feelings of awe for Rama's masculinity, his feminine characteristics can be seen in the way he enjoys his gossip with Seetha when meeting her in Lanka. It almost seems as if two females are conversing from Sundara Kanda Section 30-40 instead of a male Hanumana and a female Seetha. That being said, Hanumana had an inferiority complex due to this feminine nature in him, and always aspired to have a more dominant, masculine personality like Rama had. The inferiority complex can be seen in the need to make vain boasts of his prowess-based accomplishments in Lanka to his fellow Vanaras, after he met Seetha. This unsatisfied, gender imbalance in Hanumana led him to exert violence (in an attempt to show his manliness) on youthful Rakshasii females in Lanka and on old men like Dadimukha, whose shoulders Hanumana had broken in a state of anger!
As I have mentioned in the excerpt from that article, Hanumana was more of a feminine, less dominant character that always behaved subordinate to more masculine characters like Rama and Ravana. However, he aspired to become more masculine like those two characters. This resulted in his vain boasts to his fellow Vanaras regarding his prowess. For example, after Jambavan convinces Hanumana to cross the ocean and reach Lanka (to search for Seetha), Hanumana not only agrees with the decision, but praises his own leaping/swimming (प्लवने) abilities to the skies, to enforce the notion that swimming 100 yojanas at a stretch is a joke for him. Lets take a look as such boasts…
प्लव has been translated as “swimming” at some times, and as “leaping” at other times in these verses, according to context. Both are proper translations for the wordप्लव, though. Translations used for the below verses are done by IIT Kanpur scholars. I am not using the translations on the website because Kishkindha Kanda was translated by Desiraju Hanumanta Rao, and his translations/commentaries have many flaws and personal biases, and are at times hard to understand:
पर्वतान् चूर्णष्यामि प्लवमानः प्लवंगमाः |हरिष्यामि ऊरु वेगेन प्लवमानो महाअर्णवम् || ४-६७-१८ 
'O monkeys when I swim, I can crush the mountains into powder and pull the vast ocean with me with the force of my thighs. 
लतानाम् विविधाम् पुष्पम् पादपानाम् च सर्वशः |अनुयास्यति माम् अद्य प्लवमानम् विहायसा || ४-६७-१९ भविष्यति हि मे पन्थाः स्वातेः पन्था इव अंबरे | 
And then as I leap through the sky flowers of many kinds of creepers and trees will follow me. 
चरन्तम् घोरम् आकाशम् उत्पतिष्यन्तम् एव च || ४-६७-२० द्रक्ष्यन्ति निपतन्तम् च सर्व भूतानि वानराः | 
'O monkey when I fly upward in the dreadful sky or descend down, all creatures will see me, for my path will be the path of the constellation of Swati (a group of stars). 
महा मेरु प्रतीकाशम् माम् द्रक्ष्यध्वम् प्लवंगमाः || ४-६७-२१ दिवम् आवृत्य गच्छन्तम् ग्रसमानम् इव अंबरम् | 
'O monkeys when I leap in the sky like the great mount Meru, you will see me as if I am swallowing the sky because I will be enveloping it with my strides. 
विधमिष्यामि जीमूतान् कंपयिष्यामि पर्वतान् |सागरम् शोषयिष्यामि प्लवमानः समाहितः || ४-६७-२२ 
With a composed self, while I am leaping, I will scatter the clouds, shake the mountains, and agitate the ocean. 
वैनतेयस्य वा शक्तिः मम वा मारुतस्य वा |ऋते सुपर्ण राजानम् मारुतम् वा महाबलम् |न तत् भूतम् प्रपश्यामि यत् माम् प्लुतम् अनुव्रजेत् || ४-६७-२३ 
'Only Garuda and Maruta have the capacity to fly like me. No one other than the king of vultures and the Windgod have the speed to fly like me. 
निमेष अन्तर मात्रेण निरालंबनम् अंबरम् |सहसा निपतिष्यामि घनात् विद्युत् इव उत्थिता || ४-६७-२४ 
'Just as the lightning generated by the clouds lands at once in the sky without any support I can also land in less than a moment. 
भविष्यति हि मे रूपम् प्लवमानस्य सागरम् |विष्णोः प्रक्रममाणस्य तदा त्रीन् विक्रमान् इव || ४-६७-२५
‘While I am swimming the ocean, my form will be like that of Vishnu who in earlier times, advanced three strides. 
बुद्ध्या च अहम् प्रपश्यामि मनः चेष्टा च मे तथा |अहम् द्रक्ष्यामि वैदेहीम् प्रमोदध्वम् प्लवंगमाः || ४-६७-२६ 
'O monkeys I have a feeling in my mind that I will see Vaidehi. Be happy. 
मारुतस्य समो वेगे गरुडस्य समो जवे |अयुतम् योजनानाम् तु गमिष्यामि इति मे मतिः || ४-६७-२७ 
'I am equal to Maruta and Garuda in speed. I feel I can cover ten thousand yojanas (at a stretch). 
वासवस्य स वज्रस्य ब्रह्मणो वा स्वयंभुवः |विक्रम्य सहसा हस्तात् अमृतम् तत् इह आनये || ४-६७-२८ लंकाम् वा अपि समुत्क्षिप्य गच्छेयम् इति मे मतिः |
'I think I can encounter Indra, wielder of the thunderbolt and obtain nectar from his hands. I can even confront Brahma, the self-born creator courageously. I can even uproot Lanka and carry it.'
Kishkindha Kanda Section 67[5]
If you had the patience to read through such vain boasting by Hanumana, you get the point I am trying to make. He praised his swimming, and leaping capabilities as if he was some sort of superhuman, and even went on to say that only Vayu Deva and Garuda could match him in that! This boasting increased his reputation/standard amongst the Vanaras who were fear-struck thinking of the consequences (i.e. death) that Sugriva would impose on them if they returned without finding Seetha. As a result of these boasts, his fellow Vanaras praised him thinking that he would accomplish the task of finding Seetha! To further reinforce his prowess, right before leaping from the Mahendra Mountains into the ocean, he again boasts of defeating Ravana in Lanka. I will let the verses do the speaking:
यथा राघवनिर्मुक्तः शरः श्वसनविक्रमः |गच्चेत्तद्वद्गमिष्यामि लङ्कां रावणपालिताम् || ५-१-३९ न हि द्रक्ष्यामि यदि तां लङ्कायां जनकात्मजाम् |अनेनैव हि वेगेन गमिष्यामि सुरालयम् || ५-१-४० यदि वा त्रिदिवे सीतां न द्रक्ष्याम्यकृतश्रमः |बद्ध्वा राक्षसराजानमानयिष्यामि रावणम् || ५-१-४१ सर्वथा कृतकार्योऽहमेष्यामि सह सीतया |आनयिष्यामि वा लङ्कां समुत्पाट्य सरावणाम् || ५-१-४२
"I will go to the city of Lanka, ruled by Ravana just like an arrow released by Rama will go, with wind-like speed. If I do not see the daughter of Janaka there, I will go with the same speed to the abode of gods. If I do not see Seetha there in heaven, I will get Ravana the king of raakshasaas tied up in chains without any effort. I will, in all events, return successfully along with Seetha or I will get Lanka along with Ravana after uprooting it."
Sundara Kanda Section 1[6]
Here Hanumana increases the intensity of his boasts to his fellow Vanara friends by saying that he will either free Seetha from wherever she is held captive (be it Ravana or even the Devas in Heaven), or if she is not found, then he will bind Ravana in chains, and uproot Lanka. We can see the high standard Hanumana set regarding his prowess to his fellow Vanaras. He had to, at all costs, meet the expectations of these Vanaras. This meant either binding Ravana and taking him captive to the Vanaras, or freeing Seetha from Ravana’s hands, none of which he accomplished. On the contrary, he was made prisoner, paraded through the streets of Lanka like a criminal, nearly had his penis cut off, and was forced to flee from Lanka at the nearest opportunity. With what face would Hanumana have told his Vanara friends all this? He would have become a laughing stock among the Vanaras.
To avoid this, when he was on his way back to the Vanaras, after fleeing from Lanka, he attempted to maintain his reputation, by initially making a roar of victory to his fellow Vanaras, thereby giving them the idea that he was successful in his mission:
तार्क्ष्यायमाणो गगने बभासे वायुनन्दनः | दारयन्मेघबृन्दानि निष्पतंश्च पुनः पुनः || ५-५७-१०
Having reached that place, Hanuma who was ardently desirous of seeing his friends, roared and waved his penis.
Sundara Kanda Section 57[7]
As we can see from the above verse, Hanumana roars and waves his penis to make his fellow Vanara friends think he was successful in the mission, thereby meeting the standards he had set earlier through his boasts! Hearing these roars, Jambavan called all the Vanaras, and said that Hanumana definitely accomplished the mission. This “acting” by Hanumana definitely made the Vanaras convinced that he was successful and prevented him from becoming a laughing stock among his kith and kin:
निशम्य नदतो नादम् वानराः ते समन्ततः || ५-५७-२१बभूवुः उत्सुकाः सर्वे सुहृत् दर्शन कान्क्षिणः |
Hearing that roar of Hanuma, who was making the sound, all those Vanaras stationed there in all directions, became anxiously desirous of seeing their friend.
जाम्बवान् स हरि श्रेष्ठः प्रीति सम्हृष्ट मानसः || ५-५७-२२उपामन्त्र्य हरीन् सर्वान् इदम् वचनम् अब्रवीत् |
The Jambavan, the chief of Vanaras, with his mind thrilled with joy, having summoned all the monkeys, spoke the following words:
सर्वथा कृत कार्यो असौ हनूमान् न अत्र संशयः || ५-५७-२३न हि अस्य अकृत कार्यस्य नाद एवम् विधो भवेत् |
"This Hanuma has accomplished his assignment in all ways. His sound will not indeed be like this, if he has not fulfilled his task. There is not doubt in this matter."
Sundara Kanda Section 57[7] 
This first impression upon reaching back to his Vanara friends was very strong, and suggested that he was successful in his mission. He then boasted of his accomplishments in Lanka, to the extent of saying that he even defeated Indrajita:
तस्य अपि अहम् बलम् सर्वम् तम् च राक्षस पुम्गवम् || ५-५८-१२६नष्ट ओजसम् रणे कृत्वा परम् हर्षम् उपागमम् |
"By conquering all that army in battle and making that Indrajit the foremost among demons lusterless, I experienced a great joy."
Sundara Kanda Section 58[4]
As we all know from the direct narrative of the Hanumana-Indrajta fight in Sundara Kanda Section 48, it was Indrajita who defeated Hanumana and made him captive, not vice versa... However, this just goes to show the extent of Hanumana's (false) boasting in front of his Vanara friends... We see such boasting from Hanumana throughout the entire narration to his Vanara friends of what all happened in Lanka (Sundara Kanda Section 58). For this reason, there is always doubt on whether what he is telling them is a fact, or merely an exaggeration due to his vain boasting. This puts some doubt on the truthfulness of the passage where he tells the Vanaras he had burned down Lanka. Since Hanumana's fleeing from Lanka was highly embarrassing for him, it logically follows that the chances are high of him having created a “fake story” of burning the city of Lanka, to hide this embarrassing fact. Once Hanumana, along with the rest of the Vanaras, returned to the Kishkindha Forest, Hanumana gave a report of all that happened in Lanka to Rama, Lakshmana, and Sugriva. What is interesting to note is that he does not make a mention of burning down the city of Lanka to the three. All he mentions is destroying the exterior walls of the fort along with the moat and bridges that spanned across the length of the water in the moat. Had Hanumana performed a feat like burning down the entire city of Lanka, he would have definitely mentioned it to Rama as the knowledge of such damage to Lanka would have helped Rama in planning the conquest of Lanka. The fact that Hanumana does not make mention of the burning of the city therefore suggests that Hanumana’s narration to his Vanara friends of him burning Lanka was simply (false) boasting, with no truth to it. One boasts much in front of friends (in this case the Vanaras) regarding his/her capabilities as an individual. However, when it comes to a discussion with the boss (in this case Rama/Lakshmana/Sugriva), such boasting is usually thrown out the window and only the truth is spoken, to the prevent the disastrous consequences!
Furthermore, after Hanumana left Lanka, Ravana held a meeting with his ministers. In that meeting, they planned on how to defeat Rama. They also mentioned Hanumana, but did not mention him burning down Lanka (Yuddha Kanda Sections 6-9). Many days after this meeting, Vibhishana came to Ravana’s inner apartments to talk about the state of Lanka. There also, there was no mention of Lanka having been burned down (Yuddha Kanda Section 10). Furthermore, after this brief meeting with Vibhishana, Ravana held yet another meeting with his important ministers. Again, there was no mention of Hanumana burning down Lanka in that meeting (Yuddha Kanda Sections 12-16)! After Rama killed Ravana, he sent Hanumana to meet Bharatha, before he (Rama) himself entered Ayodhya. When Hanumana met Bharatha, he narrated all that happened in Rama's period of exile to Bharatha. Although Hanumana does mention his act of crossing the 100 yojana long ocean and finding Seetha in the Ashoka Grove of Lanka, he does not mention any act of burning down Lanka (Yuddha Kanda Section 126). All these points reinforce the conclusion I earlier made that Hanumana did not burn down Lanka, and that his speech to his Vanara friends was (false) boasting with the purpose of ensuring that his reputation as a strong warrior does not deteriorate in the eyes of the Vanaras, and that he does not become a laughing stock among the Vanaras.
Image result for hanuman jambavan

Cross References to Burning of Lanka in Valmiki Ramayana — By Kumbhakarna

The second and final reference to Hanumana burning down Lanka is found in Yuddha Kanda Section 63. Once Rama attacked Lanka, an anxious Ravana woke up Kumbhakarna and asked him to fight against the enemy. Seeing the gravity of the situation, Kumbhakarna attempted to reduce Ravana’s fear and anxiety, by agreeing to go to fight in the war and by boosting Ravana’s morale by saying that he (Kumbhakarna) alone will destroy the enemy:
यदि मे मुष्टिवेगम् स राघवोऽद्य सहिष्यति || ६-६३-४७

ततः पास्यन्ति बाणौघा रुधिरम् राघवस्य मे |
"If Rama today survives even after facing the rapid blows of my fists, then my flood of arrows will drink the blood of Rama."
चिन्तया तप्यसे राजन् किमर्थम् मयि तिष्ठति || ६-६३-४८

सोऽहम् शत्रुविनाशाय तव निर्यातुमुद्यतः |
"O king! When I exist, why do you suffer from anxiety? Here, I am ready to sally forth for the destruction of your enemies."
मुञ्च रामद्भयम् घोरम् निहनिष्यामि सम्युगे || ६-६३-४९

राघवम् लक्ष्मणम् चैव सुग्रीवम् च महाबलम् |

हनूमन्तम् च रक्षोघ्नम् येन लङ्का प्रदीपिता || ६-६३-५०
"Be free from the terrific fear of Rama. In the battle, I will kill Rama, Lakshmana, the mighty Sugreeva and even Hanuma, by whom the city of Lanka was burnt off and the demons were killed."
हरींश्च भक्षयिष्यामि सम्युगे समुपस्थिते |

असाधारणमिच्छमि तव दातुम् महद्यशः || ६-६३-५१
"I shall devour the monkeys in battle, which is near at hand. I wish to contribute a tremendous and extraordinary reputation for you."
यदिचेन्द्राद्भयम् राजन्यदि चापि स्वयम्भुवः |

ततोऽहम् नाशयिष्यामि नैशम् तम इवांशुमान् || ६-६३-५२

अपि देवाः शयिष्यान्ते मयि क्रुद्धे महीतले |
'O king! If you have a fear for Indra or even for Brahma, I shall remove it then, as the sun removes darkness of the night. When I am enraged, even celestials will lay down on the floor."
Yuddha Kanda Section 63[9]
The passage above would make any reader believe that this is a cross reference to Hanumana burning down Lanka, right?
If we look at the text carefully, in verses 6.63.49-50 shown above, Kumbhakarna says that he will kill Rama, Lakshmana and Sugriva. What is common among those three? They are leaders of the Vanara army. However, Hanumana is neither the strongest Vanara, nor the leader of the army. In fact, he himself told Seetha in Sundara Kanda that there are many Vanaras in the army superior to him:
मत् विशिष्टाः च तुल्याः च सन्ति तत्र वन ओकसः |मत्तः प्रत्यवरः कश्चिन् न अस्ति सुग्रीव सम्निधौ || ५-३९-३८
"In them, some of the monkeys are superior to me and some are even equal to me. No one in the vicinity of Sugreeva is inferior to me."
अहम् तावत् इह प्राप्तः किम् पुनः ते महाबलाः |न हि प्रकृष्टाः प्रेष्यन्ते प्रेष्यन्ते हि इतरे जनाः || ५-३९-३९
"When I have arrived here, why to talk about the mighty ones? Generally, superior ones are not sent for errands. Only others are indeed sent." 
Sundara Kanda Section 39[10]
Since Hanumana was nowhere close to being a leader of the Vanara army and did not have a great influence on the Vanara army as well as the outcome of the war, there is no reason for Kumbhakarna to mention an inferior Vanara, along with powerful leaders of the Vanara army like Rama, Lakshmana, and Sugriva. For this reason, the reference to Hanumana (and by extension his burning of Lanka) in verse 6.63.50 is a later addition to the epic. The Baroda Oriental Institute took over 300 manuscripts of Valmiki Ramayana and compared them to remove many verses that may have been later interpolations, thereby creating a "critical edition of the Valmiki Ramayana". In this critical edition, verse 6.63.50 was removed as an interpolation. Below I am posting the critical edition verses with their translation:
यदि मे मुष्टिवेगं स राघवोऽद्य सहिष्यति |ततः पास्यन्ति बाणौघा रुधिरं राघवस्य ते || ४३||चिन्तया बाध्यसे राजन्किमर्थं मयि तिष्ठति |सोऽहं शत्रुविनाशाय तव निर्यातुमुद्यतः || ४४||मुञ्च रामाद्भयं राजन्हनिष्यामीह संयुगे |राघवं लक्ष्मणं चैव सुग्रीवं च महाबलम् |असाधारणमिच्छामि तव दातुं महद्यशः || ४५||
"If Rama today survives even after facing the rapid blows of my fists, then my flood of arrows will drink the blood of Rama. O king! When I exist, why do you suffer from anxiety? Here, I am ready to sally forth for the destruction of your enemies.Be free from the terrific fear of Rama. In the battle, I will kill Rama, Lakshmana, and the mighty Sugreeva. I wish to contribute a tremendous and extraordinary reputation for you.”
Yuddha Kanda Section 51 (Critical Edition)[11]
As you can see in the passage above, the critical edition removes the verse where Hanumana burns down the city of Lanka. For that reason, Kumbhakarna’s mention of Hanumana burning down the city of Lanka is a later addition to the Valmiki Ramayana. In the entire epic, there are only two cross references to the Lanka burning. One is by Hanumana to his fellow Vanaras, which I have already addressed. The second one is by Kumbhakarna, which I have shown to be an interpolation. That being said, another important question still remains:
Why did Ravana give an order to severe Hanumana’s penis? If it was to subdue Hanumana’s manliness, there are other symbols of manliness in one’s body such as the mighty arms, and thighs of an individual. Why was the punishment directed specifically at Hanumana’s penis?

Why was the Punishment Meted Out to Hanumana Targeted to his Penis?

In Part 1 of this series, I had concluded that although Ravana had initially planned to kill Hanumana, he changed his decision, on Vibhishana’s advice, to severing Hanumana’s penis. The reason for this, I said in my previous post, was to suppress Hanumana’s manliness and prowess. The penis is a symbol of manly prowess and vigor. Severing this body part would be a huge blow to those manly qualities, and would be a matter of great humiliation to Hanumana. Although this is true, the same purpose could have been accomplished by amputating Hanumana’s muscular arms, or perhaps even his thighs. The arms and thighs of a strong individual are definitely a symbol of manly prowess! Had either of them been amputated, a disabled Hanumana would have never even thought of attacking Lanka again, right? So why was that not given as the punishment, instead of severing the penis?
My analysis of Sundara Kanda suggests that Ravana’s punishment was not just focused on suppressing Hanumana's manly prowess as a warrior. However, it was also focused of suppressing Hanumana’s virility, or in other words, “sexual prowess”. That is the reason why Hanumana’s male sex organ was targeted by Ravana in the punishment decided for him. This raises yet another meaningful question:

Why did Ravana try to suppress Hanumana's "virility" and "sexual prowess"?

The simple answer to that would be that Hanumana committed many acts of sexuality in Lanka that angered Ravana, such as raping Mandodari and other wives of Ravana, raping females residing in the Ashoka Grove, and having (consensual) sex with Seetha. However, this brief statement will not satisfy most people due to long held beliefs that Hanumana was a brahmacharya and never had sex with a woman in his entire life. For that reason, I will analyze a large portion of Sundara Kanda to show in great detail the evolution of Hanumana's sexuality and the sexual exploits performed by him that angered Ravana and forced the emperor to give him a punishment of having his male sex organ severed. If there is any Kanda that allows for the character development of Hanumana, it would be Sundara Kanda!

To start off, I would like to state that Hanumana was not a successful brahmacharya, by any stretch of imagination. Although he did have a vow that he would control his senses and not feel sexual attraction towards the wives of other men, he failed miserably in upholding that vow, as I will show later on in this post. In other versions of the Ramayana, such as the Thai Ramayana, Hanumana is depicted as a very sexually active man, and nothing remotely close to a brahmacharya. To elaborate on this, I would like to direct you to a Quora answer[12] on Hanumana’s character in thThai Ramayana. Below is an excerpt from the answer:
Unlike in Ramayana that Hanuman is a virgin and devotes himself to Rama and Sita, in Ramakien, Hanuman is a sex-lover monkey. He seduced many women in the epic to have sex with him. These included a daughter of Vibhishana, and a daughter of Ravana.

Moreover, Hanuman also raped Mandodari, when he disguised himself as Ravana to destroy Mandodari’s ritual to spawn the dead.

Hanuman seduced a daughter of Vibhishana. (Credit: Chalo-K)
As can be seen in the excerpt from that answer, in the Thai Ramayana, Hanumana was a sex-lover, with many sexual exploits in Lanka. One reason why this should not be completely rejected is that Thailand is very close to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the territory that was Ravana’s Lanka. Hence, that version gives a more "native Rakshasa" perspective of the history, as opposed to the "foreigner Aryan" perspective that we see in Valmiki Ramayana.

Valmiki’s Symbolism of Lanka

I will start off by presenting some verses where Valmiki uses symbolism to describe the city of Lanka. When Hanumana crosses the ocean that stretches 100 yojanas and reaches Lanka, both Valmiki and Hanumana liken the city of Lanka to a beautiful woman, with an emphasis on the woman’s hips and loins, the body parts used by a female during sex. Keep in mind that Lanka (लङ्कां) is a sanskrit word that also means an "unchaste woman". Female chastity was not practiced by the Rakshasa community. The women of this community had both pre-marital and extra-marital sex, and therefore were unchaste, from the Vedic Aryan perspective:
समासाद्य च लक्ष्मीवन् लङ्कां रावणपालिताम् |परिखाभिः सपद्माभिः सोत्पलाभिरलंकृताम् || ५-२-१४सीतापहरणार्थेन रावणेन सुरक्षिताम् |समन्ताद्विचरद्भिश्च राक्षसैरुग्रधन्विभिः || ५-२-१५काञ्चनेनावृतां रम्यां प्राकारेण महापुरीम् |गृहैश्च ग्रहसंकाशैः शारदाम्बुदसन्निभैः || ५-२-१६पाण्डुराभिः प्रतोळीभिरुच्चाभिरभिसंवृताम् |अट्टालकशताकीर्णां पताकाध्वजमालिनीम् || ५-२-१७तोरणैः काञ्चनैर्दिव्यैर्लतापङ्किविचित्रितैः |ददर्श हनुमान् लङ्कां दिवि देवपुरीं यथा || ५-२-१८
The glorious Hanuma neared the city of Lanka ruled by Ravana, and saw the city which looked like the city of Gods in heaven, decorated by moats filled with lotuses and water-lilies, which was well protected, since the time of Seetha's abduction, by Ravana and by Rakshasas with horrifying voices roaming around, which was surrounded by a golden boundary wall, that beautiful great city consisted of houses equal in height to mountains and which looked like autumnal clouds, with white and elevated main streets, decorated with flags and pennons, with excellent golden hued archways adorned with sculpted rows of vines.
पप्रप्राकारजघनां विपुलाम्बुनवाम्बराम् |शतघ्नीशूलकेशान्तामट्टालकवतंसकाम् || ५-२-२१मन्सेव कृतां लङ्कां निर्मितां विश्वकर्मणा |द्वारमुत्तरमासाद्य चिन्तयामास वानरः || ५-२-२२
Hanuma saw the city of Lanka with buttress and enclosure wall as her hip and loins, the vast body of water in the moat as her raiment, Satagnis and Sulas as her locks, the mansions as her earrings, constructed by thought. He reached the northern gate and thought thus.
Sundara Kanda Section 2[13]
As we can see from the verses above, Hanumana first paid close attention to the buttress/enclosure wall of the Lanka fort and the moat, the two of the parts of Lanka that he would later assault. He also likens these parts of the city that he assaulted to a beautiful woman’s hip/loins, and raiment respectively. If we look at it through the lens of symbolism, this verse suggests that Hanumana assaulted the unchaste Lankan women (लङ्कां), by first targeting  their raiment, and then their hip and loins (a clear description of rape?). Take note of the fact that this is the same order in which the city of Lanka was assaulted by Hanumana. Hanumana first attacked the moat (i.e. symbolic raiment) and then the buttress/boundary wall (i.e. symbolic hips/loins).

In the very next section (Sundara Kanda Section 3), Hanumana waits till evening to enter the city of Lanka. In the evening, when he enters the city of Lanka, he again likens the city of Lanka to a woman:
ताम् रत्न वसन उपेताम् कोष्ठ आगार अवतंसकाम् |यन्त्र अगार स्तनीम् ऋद्धाम् प्रमदाम् इव भूषिताम् || ५-३-१८ताम् नष्ट तिमिराम् दीपैः भास्वरैः च महा गृहैः |नगरीम् राक्षस इन्द्रस्य ददर्श स महा कपिः || ५-३-१९
That great monkey saw that city of king of rakshasas like a wealthy woman decorated with diamonds for her clothes, with various storage houses as earrings, with amouries for her breasts. Due to the lamps that illuminated the radiant great houses, all darkness was lost.
Sundara Kanda Section 3[14]
In Lanka, Hanumana engaged in war with some of Ravana’s army and was described to have destroyed their arsenal and defeated the forces sent by Ravana. After that Ravana sent Indrajita, and Hanumana got captured by Indrajita. So, Hanumana conquered the arsenal of Lanka, just like how one conquers a woman breasts, in sexual intercourse, when raping them. This is again another piece of symbolism that suggests that Hanumana raped women in Lanka.

Furthermore, after Ravana was killed by Rama in Yuddha Kanda, Mandodari lamented and said on behalf of all of Ravana’s consorts the following:
यदिअव नगरीं लङ्कां दुष्प्रवेशां सुरैरपि |प्रविष्टो हनुमान्वीर्यात्तदैव व्यथिता वयम् || ६-१११-१०
"We felt painful, the moment Hanuma penetrated, by dint of his prowess, deep into the City of Lanka, which was difficult to be entered even for gods."
Yuddha Kanda Section 111[15]
This translation by KMK Murthy would make us believe that Hanumana simply entered the city of Lanka via his physical prowess, and that caused the females to feel painful. However, Sundara Kanda says that Hanumana just slipped into Lanka under the disguise of the night, and in a small form, without any resistance. He did not exhibit any sort of prowess in entering the city of Lanka. Furthermore, why did Mandodari say that she and her other consorts felt pained when Hanumana entered Lanka? As far as the commonly known interpretation goes, Hanumana just targeted the army of Lanka, not the consorts of Ravana... This all shows that there is more than what meets the eye.
So, to better understand the verse, I would suggest to consult the sanskrit of that verse. In the verse above, the translator translates प्रविष्टो as “penetrated”. However,that word also refers to “the penetration that occurs via sexual intercourse”. Likewise, the translator translates दुष्प्रवेशां as "difficult to be entered". However, that word also means "difficult to be penetrated in sexual intercourse". Furthermore, in the verse above, the word वीर्या was translated as “prowess”. However, the word also means “virility” or even “semen virile”. In addition, the phrase नगरीं लङ्कां, which was translated as "the City of Lanka", also means "the City of unchaste women". After all, in verses 5.2.14-18 and 5.3.18-19, Hanumana likens the city of Lanka to a beautiful woman with hips, loin, breasts, and earrings emphasized...

If we make the appropriate changes to the translation, the new translation would read:
"We felt painful, the moment Hanuma penetrated in sexual intercourse, by dint of his virility (semen virile), deep into the City of unchaste women, which was difficult to be penetrated in sexual intercourse even for gods."
This new translation gives a sexual perspective to what Hanumana did in Lanka... The city of Lanka was described as being composed of "unchaste women". Hanumana penetrated deep into such a city and conquered it by raping many unchaste women, some of whom included the consorts of Ravana, such as Mandodari. The translation above also supports the poetic description I discussed earlier, of Hanumana conquering the raiment and then the hips/loin and breasts of the women in Lanka, via sexual intercourse. That being said, one of the things Valmiki Ramayana has in common with Thai Ramayana is that both mention that Hanumana raped Mandodari!

Image result for lanka ravana
I think this description is enough to give us the motivation to probe through Sundara Kanda to find other such mentions of Hanumana’s sexual exploits. I will first start at the point after Hanumana leaped from Mount Mahendra into the ocean and started swimming to Lanka.

The Hanumana-Mount Mainaka Encounter in the Ocean to Lanka

On the way to Lanka, he encountered what the poet describes as Mount Mainaka, a “symbolic mountain” in the middle of the ocean. When Hanumana was on his way to this mountain, Samudra (i.e. the ocean) saw Hanumana approaching and then started to converse with this mountain:
इति कृत्वा मतिं साध्वीं समुद्रश्चन्नमम्भसि || ५-१-९१ हिरण्यनाभं मैनाकमुवाच गिरिसत्तमम् |
Samudra thus making a good thought, spoke to Mainaka, the best among mountains with gold in the middle, hidden in water.
त्वमिहासुरसंघानां पाताळतलवासिनां || ५-१-९२ देवराज्ञा गिरिश्रेष्ठ परिघः संनिवेशितः |
"O best among mountains Mainaka! You have been positioned here by Indra Deva as an obstacle to the groups of asuras living in paataala."
Sundara Kanda Section 1[6]
In the first verse, KMK Murthy translates हिरण्यनाभं as “the one with gold in the middle”. In other words, he translates हिरण्य as “gold” and नाभं as “navel”. Although हिरण्य does mean “gold”, it also means “semen virile”. Likewise, नाभं means “navel”. So a more appropriate translation of हिरण्यनाभं mean “the one with semen in the navel”. This gives a sexual connotation to the mountain, and clearly shows that the mountain was symbolic, and represented a highly sexual woman.
This is just one of the many instances where nature is likened to a woman. Valmiki alludes to this symbolism, even from Kishkindha Kanda, when he, through Sugriva’s speech suggests a common link between trees, earth (which includes mountains as well), water, and women. After Vali’s death, Sugriva laments and says:
पाप्मानम् इन्द्रस्य मही जलम् च वृक्षाः च कामम् जगृहुः स्त्रियः च |
को नाम पाप्मानम् इमम् सहेत शाखा मृगस्य प्रतिपत्तुम् इच्छेत् || ४-२४-१४
"Earth, waters, trees and women took the burden of Indra's sins, but who in name will bear the burden of this sin of mine, that too the sin of a monkey, who wishes to share?
Kishkindha Kanda Section 24[16] 
This verse supports the decision I made earlier to use mountains (which are an extension of Earth) as symbolism for “women”. Now that I have addressed the symbolic Mainaka mountain, I will look at the second verse in the passage above. In the second verse परिघः was translated by KMK Murthy as “obstacle”. It is true that it means “obstacle”. But its root परि also has many other meanings, such as “embrace” and “killing”. In other words, this second verse talks about the the symbolic mountain, which was in reality a woman, who seduced the invading Asuras, had sex with them, and then killed them when they were caught off gaurd, thereby acting as an obstruction for Asura invasion to Deva territory. In other words, Samudra was describing how this symbolic mountain, nay woman, had in the past, used her body as a tool to achieve a political purpose, similar to the acts of Seetha and Draupadi in the Ramayana and Mahabharatha, respectively.
Continuing on with Samudra’s conversation to the symbolic Mainaka Mountain...

Samudra later asks the Mainaka Mountain to give rest to Hanumana, who was exhausted, and was moving in the direction towards her. Given the sexual connotation associated with the woman (i.e. the symbolic mountain) and her role in “seduction” that I described above, it should be evident that Samudra was essentially asking the woman to relax/rest the exhausted Hanumana who had already been swimming the ocean alone, at a single stretch, by giving him some quality sex! After Samudra appealed to the Mainaka Mountain, she agreed and then showed sexual passion towards the approaching Hanumana:
स महात्मा मुहूर्तेन सर्वतः सलिलावृतः || ५-१-१०३ द्र्शयामास शृङ्गाणि सागरेण नियोजितः |शातकुम्भमयैः शृङ्गैः सकिन्नरमहोरगैः || ५-१-१०४ आदित्योदयसंकाशैरालिखद्भिरिवाम्बरम् |
That great Mainaka who was covered by water in all directions, who had excessive love with Kinnaras and great serpents, that was equal to a sun rise, touching the sky, and which had a golden hue, being ordered by the ocean, showed rising passion (for Hanumana) in an instant.
तप्तजाम्बूनदैः शृङिगाः पर्वतस्य समुत्थितैः || ५-१-१०५ आकाशं शस्त्रसंकाशमभवत्काञ्चनप्रभम् |
The sky which had a bluish tinge like that of a sword, shone with a golden hue because of the rising passion which rose up and which was like molten gold.
जातरूपमयैः शृङ्गैर्भ्राजमानैः स्वयंप्रभैः || ५-१-१०६ आदित्यशतसंकाशः सोऽभवद्गिरिसत्तमः |
That best among mountains became equal to a hundred suns with its excessive love which had a golden hue and which was shining with a self generated shine.
Sundara Kanda Section 1[6]
As we can see from the text above, she was previously engaged in (sexual) love with members of the Kinnara and Naga tribes. Upon hearing of Hanumana from Samudra and seeing him approaching, she then showed (sexual) passion (शृङ्ग) for Hanumana (5.1.103-104). This passion for Hanumana was likened to molten gold, and was very beautifully described to have had a golden shine that was self generated (5.1.105-106). In other words, the poet alludes that the passion felt by Mainaka for Hanumana was as beautiful and pure as shining, molten gold, and was felt by Mainaka from deep within her heart (i.e. self-generated). In the above verses, शृङ्ग has been translated as “excessive love” and “rising (sexual) passion”. However, that word also refers to mountain peaks. Hence the poet uses the mountain peaks of the (symbolic) Mainaka Mountain to symbolize the extensive passion/love that she felt.
When Hanumana saw Mainaka, he saw her as an obstacle and decided to hit that highly sexual lady (with a navel filled of sperm, as I earlier described) with his chest. After hitting her with his chest, she fell down and was sexually excited, thereby suggesting that Hanumana hit her with his chest in sexual intercourse:

तमुत्थितमसंगेन हनुमानग्रतः स्थितम् || ५-१-१०७मध्ये लवणतोयस्य विघ्नोऽयमिति निश्चितः |
Hanuma on seeing the mountain which stood before him, rising up from the middle of the salty ocean suddenly, decided that it is as an obstacle.
स तमुच्छ्रित मत्यर्थं महावेगो महाकपिः || ५-१-१०८उरसा पातयामास जीमूतमिव मारुतः |
That great monkey Hanuma with a great speed, brought down that great tall mountain with His chest just as the God of wind would a cloud.
स तथा पातितस्तेन कपिना पर्वतोत्तमः || ५-१-१०९बुद्ध्वा तस्य कपेर्वेगं जहर्ष च ननन्द च |
After realizing that high mountain fell down in that way, by that vanara’s speed, she was sexually excited and roared in a high pitch.
तमाकाशगतं वीरमाकाशे समुपस्थितः || ५-१-११०प्रीतो हृष्टमना वाक्यमब्रवीत्पर्वतः कपिम् |मानुषं धारयन् रूपमात्मनः शिखरे स्थितः || ५-१-१११
Mount Mainaka with love and with a pleased mind obtained a human form and standing with errection on its bodily hair, spoke these words approaching that courageous Hanuma in the sky.
Sundara Kanda Section 1[6]
When Hanumana hits Mainaka in sexual intercourse, she gets filled with sexual excitement, and that causes her to roar/cry (ननन्द) in a high pitch. Considering that Hanumana clashed with this highly sexual woman in sexual intercourse, these high pitched cries can be taken as her moaning during sexual intercouse... Hanumana would later boast of this sexual exploit to Jambavan and his fellow Vanara friends, upon returning from Lanka, by describing how he struck Mainaka with his penis:
प्रहतम् च मया तस्य लान्गूलेन महागिरेः || ५-५८-१०शिखरम् सूर्य सम्काशम् व्यशीर्यत सहस्रधा |
"As I struck it with my penis, the mountain-peak of that great hill, resembling the sun, was broken into a thousand pieces."
Sundara Kanda Section 58[4]
In the final two verses (5.1.110-111), the poet sheds all symbolism and presents this symbolic Mainaka mountain as a woman with love and a pleased mind. This pleased mind seems to be a product of Hanumana striking her with his penis, in sexual intercourse, and thereby fulfilling her passionate desire. The erection of her bodily hair are a testament to her sexual excitement at the time!

Mainaka then requested Hanumana to spend some more time and rest with her, but Hanumana refused to do so as the day was passing quickly and he was in a rush to reach Lanka:
इत्युक्त्वा पाणिना शैलमालभ्य हरिपुङ्गवः |जगामाकाशमाविश्य वीर्यवान् प्रहसन्निव || ५-१-१३३
Having said this, the virile monkey gently touched the mountain with his hands before ascending to the sky with a smile on his face.
Sundara Kanda Section 1[6] 
Note how Hanumana was described to be a virile person (वीर्यवान्) in this verse. This description is understandable, considering the sexual exploits he performed with Mainaka prior to departing from her vicinity... While leaving, he shows a smile on his face and very gently caresses Mainaka's body.
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The Hanumana-Surasa Encounter in the Ocean to Lanka

After departing, Hanumana continued to swim across the ocean. When the Devas, Gandharvas, and Siddhas saw this, they approached Surasa, a female of the Naga tribe and asked her to test Hanumana’s strength (बल). Surasa agreed to this, and upon encountering Hanumana, she told him:
मम भक्षः प्रदिष्टस्त्वमीश्वरैर्वानरर्षभ |अहं त्वा भक्षयिष्यामि प्रविशेदं ममाननम् || ५-१-१५१
"O best among Vanaras! You have been given by Devas as my food. I will eat you. Enter inside my mouth."
Sundara Kanda Section 1[6]  
If we take the above translation literally, then it suggests that all Surasa asked Hanumana to do was to enter into her “opened mouth”. But how is that a measure of anyone’s strength? Simply entering the “opened mouth” of another being, without any resistance, cannot possibly be a measure of strength. That feat can even be accomplished by the smallest beings, such as bacteria, mosquitoes, flies, etc… Well, then... One may say that the strength Surasa was testing was if Hanumana can exit her mouth after first entering it. But a close examination also shows that claim to be erroneous. If we read the rest of Sundara Kanda Section 1 in a literal manner, it would become evident that Hanumana entered and exited her open mouth without any resistance from her. So, how exactly was Surasa measuring Hanumana’s “strength” by asking him to enter her mouth? There is clearly something missing here…
Lets first look at what type of बल she was intent on measuring in Hanumana. Well… बल is a very general term, that, in addition to “physical strength”, also refers to “robustness” and “vigor”. Robustness and vigor refer to the overall strength and health of an individual. This takes an individual’s “sexuality” into perspective as well. Hence, another perspective we can look at the Hanumana-Surasa encounter from would be from the perspective of Hanumana's sexuality! Perhaps Surasa wanted to measure Hanumana’s overall robustness/vigor (बल) by taking a look at his sexuality. For this reason, it becomes necessary to see if there is any “sexual” interpretation of this verse.
Since every Sanskrit word has multiple meanings in English, I always prefer to analyze the Sanskrit of the verse, to see if the poet intended a double meaning in the verse. So first, lets look at the Sanskrit. In the above translation, by KMK Murthy, श्वरै is translated as “Devas”. However, it also means “the god of love”. Likewise, although प्रविशे is translated as “to enter”, it also means “to enter in sexual intercourse”. Furthermore, KMK Murthy translates आनन as “mouth”. However, in a more general sense, it refers to any kind of “opening”. Making the respective changes to the translation, the new, reformed translation would read:
"O best among Vanaras! You have been given by the god of love as my food. I will devour you. Enter this entrance of mine through sexual intercourse."
In the above verse, Surasa asks Hanumana to enter her entrance (आनन) through sexual intercourse (प्रविशे). It should therefore be evident that the “entrance” she was talking about was her “vagina”. Surasa also mentions that the “god of love” gave Hanumana to her as food that she will devour. In this context, the “food” she is looking to devour is symbolic. It represents Hanumana’s male sex organ. She wishes for her vagina (aka. the “entrance” in this translation) to devour Hanumana’s male sex organ in sexual intercourse, just how the mouth (आनन), devours food when a meal is consumed.
Keeping this symbolism of the mouth representing her vagina, we can read the rest of the Hanumana-Surasa story to see the sexual perspective that the poet is trying to convey!
So, after hearing Surasa’s pleas for Hanumana to have sex with her, Hanumana says that he is in a rush to find Seetha, and that after finding her, he will definitely return to her and enter her symbolic mouth in sexual intercourse (प्रविशे). However, she refuses and is adamant on Hanumana first having sex with her, and then going away to look for Seetha:
एवमुक्ता हनुमता सुरसा कामरूपिणी | अब्रवीन्नातिवर्तेत कश्चिदेष वरो मम || ५-१-१५७
Thus being spoken to by Hanuma, Surasa with a form that evokes love, spoke thus: "No one can pass me. This is my boon."
Sundara Kanda Section 1[6]   
Surasa soon saw the intelligent Hanumana trying to slowly escape from her, so she quickly stood in front of Hanumana, with her large garment removed. She then decided to measure his बलं, and therefore told him that he can only pass after entering her symbolic mouth (i.e. vagina) in sexual intercourse:
तं प्रयान्तं समुद्वीक्ष्य सुरसा वाक्यमब्रवीत् |बलं जिज्ञासमाना वै नागमाता हनूमतः || ५-१-१५८
Surasa, mother of serpents, observing that Hanuman was attempting to escape, said this in order to gauge his strength:
प्रविश्य वदनं मेऽद्य गन्तव्यं वानरोत्तम |वर एष पुरा दत्तो मम धात्रेति सत्वरा || ५-१-१५९व्यादाय विपुलं वक्त्रं स्थिता सा मारुतेः पुरः |
"O best among Vanaras! You are bound to go only after entering my mouth in sexual intercourse. This boon had been given to me long ago by Brahma." - speaking thus, with quickness she opened her large garment and stood before Hanuma.
Sundara Kanda Section 1[6]  
One thing I would like to point out from verses 5.1.158-159 is that Surasa asks Hanumana to first enter her mouth and then go to Lanka. Had she been referring to the "literal mouth" that one eats food with, this verse would make no sense as she would be asking Hanumana to go to Lanka after she eats him.

Quite ridiculous, right? How would the poor fellow be able to go to Lanka after being consumed as the lunch of a Naga woman? This is yet another hint that the mouth she wanted Hanumana to enter was symbolic in nature...

Hearing the words of Surasa, Hanumana sees her symbolic mouth (i.e. vagina), and decides to fulfill her wish. He converts his body to the size of a thumb and quickly enters and exits this symbolic mouth (i.e. vagina):
तद्दृष्ट्वा व्यादितं त्वास्यं वायुपुत्रः सुबुद्धिमान् |
दीर्घजिह्वं सुरसया सुघोरं नरकोपमम् || ५-१-१६७
सुसंक्षिप्यात्मनः कायं बभूवाञ्गुष्ठमात्रकः |
The great wise Hanuma seeing that mouth with a long tongue which was horrible and equal to hell being opened by Surasa, greatly narrowed his own body and became the size of a thumb.
सोऽभिपत्याशु तद्वक्त्रं निष्पत्य च महाजवः |
अन्तरिक्षे स्थितः श्रीमानिदं वचनमब्रवीत् || ५-१-१६८
The glorious Hanuma with great speed, quickly entered Surasa's mouth and came out of it and standing in the sky spoke these words to Surasa.
प्रविष्टोऽस्मि हि ते वक्त्रं दाक्षायणि नमोऽस्तु ते |
गमिष्ये यत्र वैदेही सत्यं चासीद्वरस्तव ||५-१-१६९
"O daughter of Daksha! I indeed entered your mouth. My regards to you. I will now go where Seetha is. Your boon also came true."
Sundara Kanda Section 1[6]  
One important thing to note is that in verse 5.1.159, Surasa opened her garment, and then in verse 5.1.167 Hanumana saw her mouth for the first time. This implies that the mouth was previously covered by some sort of garment. For that reason, this "mouth" that is being referred to is not the organ used to consume food. Instead, this opening of the body refers to a body part that is usually covered by garments; most likely the vagina, as I have previously mentioned.

In verse 5.1.167, Hanumana contracted his body to a thumb so that he could enter Surasa’s symbolic mouth (i.e. vagina) in sexual intercourse. But how is that logically possible? How can a man contract himself that small?
We can explain this through the poetic license employed by Valmiki. Prior to entering Surasa’s symbolic mouth, Hanumana was using his entire body in swimming across the ocean. His attention and his blood flow was distributed throughout his body to allow these limbs to function properly and thereby allow his to swim. However, upon deciding to enter Surasa’s symbolic mouth in sexual intercourse, the usage of his body parts diverted from these limbs to his penis. As a result, Hanumana’s attention and blood flow then got greatly “narrowed” from all these limbs to mainly his “thumb-like penis”. The greatness of Valmiki as a poet lies in the ability to explain this sexual event in such a beautiful, poetic manner!
In the first verse (5.1.167), the mouth would have symbolically represented the vagina, and the tongue would have symbolically represented the hymen. This symbolism makes sense as Hanumana’s likens this symbolic tongue to “hell”, thereby alluding that it was not pleasant to look at… After Hanumana entered and exited the symbolic mouth (i.e. vagina) of Surasa (via sexual intercourse, given the in and out movement, in his "thumb-like penis form"), she was pleased and gave way for Hanumana to pass her and travel further down the ocean in his quest to find Seetha.

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The Hanumana-Simhika Encounter in the Ocean to Lanka

After Surasa let Hanumana depart, he went further down the ocean, and encountered a demoness named Simhika. As soon as Hanumana saw her, he recognized that she was the dangerous demoness Sugriva earlier warned him of. After realizing that, Hanumana increased his size and instantly decided to eliminate her:
छाय्तद्धृष्ट्वा चिन्तयामास मारुतिर्विकृताननम् |
कपिराजेन कथितं सत्त्वमद्भुतदर्शनम् || ५-१-१८७
Seeing the form with a hideous countenance, Hanuman reflected about the creature of ugly appearance endowed with power which can catch a creature though his shadow, about which king Sugriva had once told him. 'It is the same creature, no doubt', said Hanuman.
आग्राहि महावीर्यं तदिदं नात्र संशयः |
स तां बुद्ध्वार्थतत्त्वेन सिंहिकां मतिमान्कपिः |
व्यवर्धत महाकायः प्रवृषीव वलाहकः || ५-१-१८८
Recognising the true nature of Simhika the clutcher of shadows, the wise Hanuman strengthened to a huge size like a cloud in rainy season.
Sundara Kanda Section 1[6]  
As shown in verse 5.1.188, upon recognizing Simhika, Hanumana strengthened to a huge size. Considering Hanumana's realization of the dangerous nature of Simhika in verse 5.1.187, this strengthening to a huge size seems like part of Hanumana's attempt to kill Simhika... This increase in size can be logically interpreted as flexing of the muscles, and protruding of the chest when Hanumana became confident about killing Simhika. This is further reinforced by the comparison of Hanumana’s increase in size to that of a cloud in a rainy season. Prior to precipitation, a cloud will only expand till the maximum amount of water it can hold. This is similar to how Hanumana only expanded to the extent his bodily muscles allowed him to expand. In other words, Hanumana’s expansion was no supernatural phenomenon.
Observing Hanumana's increase his body size (by flexing his muscles and protruding his chest), Simhika quickly increased the size of her mouth:
तस्य सा कायमुद्वीक्ष्य वर्धमानं महाकपेः || ५-१-१८९वक्त्रं प्रसारयामास पाताळान्तरसन्निभम् |
Observing the body of Hanuman growing in size, Simhika started distending her mouth wide like the depth of the underworld.
Sundara Kanda Section 1[6]   
Then Simhika rushed towards Hanumana. When she was rushing towards him, Hanumana paid close attention to the nipples (मुख) and vital parts of her body (i.e. vagina). If we take the next set of verses literally, Hanumana is described to have first narrowed himself, as he did in the case of Surasa, and then entered her mouth and tore these vital parts of her body:
घनराजीव गर्जन्ती वानरं सम्भिद्रवत् || ५-१-१९०
स ददर्श ततस्तस्या विवृतं सुमहन्मुखम् |
कायमात्रं च मेधावी मर्माणि च महाकपिः || ५-१-१९१
Roaring like a heavy mass of clouds, Simhika chased Hanuman. Intelligent Hanuman observed her enormous nipples and noticed her vital parts.
स तस्या विवृते वक्त्रे वज्रसंहननः कपिः |
संक्षिप्य मुहुरात्मानं निष्पपात महाबलः || ५-१-१९२
Hanuman, the vanara whose physique was as hard as thunderbolt suddenly narrowed once again and entered her opened mouth.
आस्ये तस्या निमज्जन्तं ददृशुः सिद्धचारणाः |
ग्रस्यमानं यथा चन्द्रं पूर्णं पर्वणि राहुणा || ५-१-१९३
The siddhas and charanas who were watching his performance of drowning in her mouth were amazed as though the moon is seized by Rahu on a fullmoon night.
ततस्तस्या नखैस्तीक्णैर्मर्माण्युत्कृत्य वानरः |
उत्पपाताथ वेगेन मनः संपातविक्रमः || ५-१-१९४
The vanara who had the speed of mind roughly moved in her private vital parts and after tearing them, rushed out quickly before she closed her mouth.
Sundara Kanda Section 1[6]   
These set of verses should make it clear that the “mouth” that Hanumana entered was symbolic, in nature. Just for those that have not picked this up, I will give an explanation to describe this.
The first two verses (5.1.190–191) describe how Hanumana noticed Simhika’s vital parts (i.e. vagina) and her nipples. This definitely adds a sexual connotation for Hanumana’s later approach towards her. Then, the third verse (5.1.192), says that “Hanumana narrowed himself again”. Hence the poet likens this “narrowing” to the earlier narrowing, when Hanumana narrowed his body’s attention and blood flow to the “thumb-like penis” that allowed him to penetrate the symbolic mouth (i.e. vagina) of Surasa in sexual intercourse. This is the first big hint that, just as in the case of Surasa, this “mouth” of Simhika symbolically represents her vagina. The third verse (5.1.192) also mentions that after this narrowing, Hanumana entered the mouth of Simhika. The fifth verse (5.1.194), then says that Hanumana roughly moved into her private vital parts (i.e. vagina), tore them, and quickly moved back out. Here is a discrepancy if we take the text literally. In the third verse, Hanumana entered her mouth. Then in the fifth verse, the text says that he entered her private vital parts (aka. vagina). How is this possible? The mouth with which one eats food is not the same as a person's vagina. The logical way out of this discrepancy is to conclude that "the mouth" being referred to in this passage symbolically represents Simhika’s private vital parts such as her vagina (i.e. just like in the case of Surasa).
If we put the parts together, we would see that first Simhika rushed towards Hanumana to make him enter her symbolic mouth (i.e. vagina). When Hanumana saw the latter rushing towards him, he noticed her nipples and her vital parts, and only after that he entered her symbolic mouth (i.e. vagina). He entered it in the form of a “thumb-like penis”, in a very rough manner, thereby tearing this vagina in sexual intercourse. After penetrating this vagina in sexual intercourse, Hanumana's thumb-like penis quickly rushed out!
One Hanumana tore Simhika’s “symbolic mouth” (i.e. vagina), she fell into the water and died. Valmiki includes a final verse describing her fate:
हृतहृत्सा हनुमता पपात विधुराम्भसि |तां हतां वानरेणाशु पतितां वीक्ष्य सिंहिकाम् || ५-१-१९६भूतान्याकाशचारीणी तमूचुः प्लवगोत्तमम् |
Heart torn asunder and killed by Hanuman, lovelorn Simhika instantly fell into the sea water. Observing it, the beings who ranged the sky said to the foremost of vanaras:
Sundara Kanda Section 1[6]   
Here, Valmiki describes that Simhika was lovelorn when Hanumana killed her. This means that when she initially ran after Hanumana and invited him into her symbolic mouth (i.e. vagina), she approached him as one would approach her mate (i.e. for sex). However, Hanumana rejected the love, and penetrated her in sexual intercourse very roughly, leading to her death. In that context, her later being described as “heart torn” is a figure of speech describing the mental agony she felt upon the rejection by Hanumana, the man she loved. So this little piece of information should finish the puzzle:
When Hanumana first saw Simhika, he noticed she was the demoness Sugriva warned him of. For this reason, Hanumana made his mind to eliminate her, and this decision gave a new surge in energy in him, causing him to feel more energetic, flex his muscles, and protrude his chest. When Simhika saw Hanumana do that, she was head over heals in love with him and ran after him, urging him to accept her and in a loving manner, enter her symbolic mouth (aka. vagina).
When Simhika was running after him, he noticed her nipples and vital parts, and after that accepted her appeal to enter her symbolic mouth (aka. vagina). This suggests that sexual attraction to some extent was a role player in Hanumana’s decision to enter Simhika’s symbolic mouth (aka. vagina). However, the difference was that Simhika wanted Hanumana to approach her as a lover, whereas in reality, Hanumana approached her with an intention to kill her. Hanumana entered her vagina in the form of a “thumb-like penis”, in a very rough manner, thereby tearing the vagina in sexual intercourse. This lead to the death of the demoness Simhika. Seeing that the man she loved had killed her, her heart was torn into pieces and she was lovelorn!

After Hanumana killed Simhika, he continued down the ocean and soon reached the city of Lanka!

Hanumana Enters Ravana’s Harem And Encounters Mandodari and Other Wives of Ravana

After reaching the city of Lanka, Hanumana saw the vast amount of defenses employed by Ravana, that protected the fort city of Lanka. Seeing this Hanumana got perplexed and immediately thought that there is no way the Vanara army can cross the ocean, reach Lanka, and successfully invade it. Let alone the Vanaras, he even thought that Lanka cannot be conquered by the Devas. However, at that moment, he put such thoughts backseat, and then pondered upon the way to enter Lanka to search for Seetha. He thought that if he attempted to enter the city of Lanka during daytime, the demon guards would destroy him. So he decided to enter the city in the evening, and that too, in a small size (like that of a cat)! After entering the city, he became sad upon thinking of how hard it would be to capture the city. But at the same time, he was thrilled with rapture (हृष्ट) upon thinking of the prospect of seeing Seetha:
अचिन्त्यामद्भुताकारां दृष्ट्वा लङ्कां महाकपिः | आसीद्विष्ण्डो हृष्टश्च वैदेह्या दर्शनोत्सुकः || ५-२-५५
Hanuma on seeing the unimaginable city of Lanka with a wonderful appearance became sad thinking about the prospect of capturing Lanka and also thrilled with rapture, being eager to see Seetha.
Sundara Kanda Section 2[13]   
As I will show later on in this post, Hanumana’s extreme joy upon thinking of seeing Seetha arose from his subconscious sexual curiosity regarding her, that developed in his mind ever since Rama talked about his beautiful wife! Hanumana’s behavior in Lanka suggests that although he did develop sexual curiosity towards Seetha even prior to his arrival in Lanka, it was subconscious in nature, and that when he began to consciously realize that he was sexually attracted to her, he was (initially) hesitant to accept the fact. Likewise, he was initially reluctant to accept his attraction towards Ravana’s women when he first encountered them in Lanka. The reason for this behavior was that he had taken a vow that he would control his senses and not feel sexual attraction towards the wives of other men. He did not want to break this vow at all costs, and for that reason was aversive to accepting that he was sexually attracted to Seetha, and Ravana's wives... However, as time passed by in Lanka, he was able to reconcile with these feelings of kama, allowing him to accomplish the deeds of sexual prowess that are later described in Sundara Kanda. This is a recurring theme in Sundara Kanda, that forms the crux of Hanumana’s deeds in Lanka. Hence, I will try to emphasize this theme when examining the relevant verses…

Upon entering the city of Lanka and passing through its streets and houses, Hanumana noticed intellectuals that had faith in religion and were followers of good religious practices. He then moved on, and even saw women sporting with their husbands. He saw women placing themselves on the lap of men, excited as they were with sexual pleasure, and then having sex with them. Some women had sex with their husbands in an abashed manner, whereas others sported more freely:
बुद्धिप्रधानान् रुचिराभिधानान् |संश्रद्दधानान् जगतः प्रधानान् |नानाविधानान् रुचिराभिधानान् |ददर्श तस्याम् पुरि यातुधानान् || ५-५-१५
He saw there in the city of Lanka, demons (Yatudhana), who were intellectuals, pleasing in words, with faith in religion, preeminent heroes of the world of different kinds, followers of good practices and with lovely names.
श्रिया ज्वलन्तीस्त्रपयोगूढा |निशीथकाले रमणोपगूढाः |ददर्श काश्चित्प्रमदोपगूढा |यथा विहङ्गाः कुसुमोपगूढाः || ५-५-१८
There he saw cheerful demonesses shining brightly, abashed by the embrace of their beloveds during the night. He also saw those sporting with their beloveds freely and looking like birds embracing flowers.
अन्याः पुनर्हर्म्यतलोपविष्टा |स्तत्र प्रियाङ्केषु सुखोपविष्टाः |भर्तुः प्रिया धर्मपरा निविष्टा |ददर्श धीमान् मदनाभिविष्टाः || ५-५-१९
Intelligent Hanuman saw demonesses seated happily on the laps of their beloved ones on the terraces of the mansions, exhibiting their attachment to one another, overwhelmed with sexual pleasure.
Sundara Kanda Section 5[17]  
The aforementioned passage, as well as the rest of Sundara Kanda Section 5, details what specifically Hanumana paid most attention to, when passing through Lanka. In other words, it is a description of the distribution of Hanumana's attention as he passed through the streets of Lanka. Note that out of all of the women in Lanka, Hanumana specifically paid attention to those with their sexuality emphasized; that is, those women overwhelmed with sexual pleasure and engaged in sexual intercourse. In a research study where males were exposed to erotic heterosexual couple stimuli, a correlation between amount of visual attention to the erotic stimuli and sexual attraction was found[41] . The fact that Hanumana's attention was concentrated towards the females that were having sex and whose sexuality was emphasized suggests that Hanumana was sexually attracted to these women. He was subconsciously allured by their sexuality. Furthermore, every act of sexual intercourse involves a male and a female. So any neutral description of the act would ideally talk about the appearance and behavior of both the male and female. But note how Hanumana's attention, as described in verses 5.5.18-19, was exclusively on the females, whom he describes as "cheerful", "abashed", and "looking like birds embracing flowers". No such attention was placed on the bodies of the males in this sexual act... This exclusive attention Hanumana paid to the females further supports my claim that he was sexually attracted to them, at the subconscious level. 

Valmiki then went on to mention that Hanumana saw beautiful women with a complexion of refined gold, suitable for mating, in a naked position:
अप्रावृताः काञ्चनराजिवर्णाः |काश्चित्परार्थ्यास्तपनीयवर्णाः |पुनश्च काश्चिच्छशलक्ष्मवर्णाः |कान्तप्रहीणारुचिराङ्गवर्णाः || ५-५-२०
Hanuma saw women with golden complexion lacking clothes, women with a complexion of refined gold suitable for mating and some other women also with the colour of moon and some other women with beautiful bodies lacking a lover.
चन्द्रप्रकाशाश्च हि वक्त्रमाला |वक्राक्षिपक्ष्माश्च सुनेत्रमालाः |विभूषाणानाम् च ददर्श मालाः |शतह्रदानामिव चारुमालाः || ५-५-२२
Hanuma saw rows of faces shining like the moon, beautiful rows of eyes with curved eyebrows and rows of ornaments like beautiful rows of lighting.
Sundara Kanda Section 5[17] 
In this passage, we are told that Hanumana placed his attention on the women of "golden complexion, lacking clothes". The fact that Hanumana places his attention on women with naked bodies and even finds it necessary to go on and describe their complexion suggests that he was feeling sexually attracted to them, albeit at a somewhat more conscious level than what he showed in the earlier verses of 5.5.18-19. Any male can attest to the fact that when they see a gorgeous woman in front of them, they would start mentally describing the body parts of the female that appeal to them (i.e. big eyes, fair complexion, big breasts, etc...). That was exactly what Hanumana was doing by describing the complexion of these females... After describing the complexion of these beautiful females, Hanumana became more conscious of his sexual attraction and described the females he was seeing in a more kama-filled manner. For example, he said that they were "of the color of the moon", and that they had "beautiful bodies" with "beautiful rows of eyes" and "curved eyebrows". Not only that... He also went on to address them as "suitable for mating".

Hanumana not only fancied the beauty of these women but even fantasized how they would be in bed, when mating with them... Great foresight indeed! No?

This rather conscious display of sexual attraction to these women initially gave Hanumana great pleasure (remember how he looked upon the women mating with their husbands in a very positive manner?). As a result, Hanumana then thought that if these common women were so beautiful, then how many more times beautiful would Seetha, the wife of Rama, be? In that sense, the sexual attraction Hanumana felt for these women increased his sexual curiosity for Seetha! For this reason, immediately after seeing the beauty of those Lankan women, he uttered the following verses, infested with sexual curiosity towards Seetha. His initial speech began with subconscious sexual attraction towards her, but as the speech progressed, the sexual attraction evolved to be of a more conscious nature:
न त्वेव सीताम् परमाभिजाताम् |पथि स्थिते राजकुले प्रजाताम् |लताम् प्रपुल्लामिव साधु जाताम् |ददर्श तन्वीम् मनसाभिजाताम् || ५-५-२३
Hanuman could not find Sita anywhere, an excellent lady born in a noble royal family, adopting the right path, a lady delicate like a blossoming creeper of good breed, or so he imagined.
सनातने वर्त्मानि सम्निविष्टाम् |रामेक्षणां तां मदनाभिविष्टाम् |भर्तुर्मनः श्रीमदनुप्रविष्टाम् |स्त्रीभ्यो वराभ्यश्च सदा विशिष्टाम् || ५-५-२४
'Abiding in the ancient path, she of beautiful eyes, and seized by (sexual) passion entered the glorious mind of her husband. She is always superior, compared to the best women (in Lanka).
उष्णार्दिताम् सानुसृतास्रकण्ठीम् |पुरा वरार्होत्तमनिष्ककण्ठीम् |सुजातपक्ष्मामभिरक्तकण्ठीम् |वनेऽप्रनृत्तामिव नीलकण्ठीम् || ५-५-२५
She whose neck was adorned with costly ornaments earlier must be shedding hot tears now, her throat choked with grief. With her eyelashes of noble birth and a sweet loving voice, she would be now like a peahen wandering in the woods.
Sundara Kanda Section 5[17]   
In the first verse (5.5.23), Hanumana thinks of Seetha as a “delicate lady like a blossoming creeper”. He visualizes her as a very soft, weak lady. Such a description of a woman as a “weak lady” does have a subconscious sexual connotation, as research suggests that men tend to feel more sexually attracted to weaker, subordinate women[18]. As I have mentioned briefly in a previous post[19], Rama saw Seetha as a very “weak woman” always needing his “manly protection”. Keeping that in mind, it should not take much effort to connect the dots and realize that this perception of Seetha as a “weak lady” by Hanumana was likely acquired via Rama’s descriptions of her as such. Rama’s descriptions of Seetha, and in particular her supernatural beauty, were what evoked the first sparks of a subconscious sexual curiosity for Seetha, in Hanumana’s mind. After all, out of all possible things that could have been used as pointers to identify Seetha, Hanumana identifies her by closely observing her beauty, and in verse 5.31.15, tells her "Surely I have seen here a lady of similar body, of similar complexion, of similar glow and beauty as described by Rama", thereby suggesting that her beauty and appearance was what most appealed to him in Rama's description of her!

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In the second verse (5.5.24), Hanumana starts by saying that Seetha had beautiful eyes and that she was seized by sexual passion (मदन), thereby displaying a more conscious form of sexual attraction towards her. However, it did not take long after this completely conscious outpour of sexual passion for Hanumana to realize he was describing his master Rama’s wife in sexual terms. He realized that to some extent he had violated his vow of controlling his senses. As a result, after saying these words, he felt somewhat ashamed and therefore quickly added in the second part of that verse (5.5.24b) that Seetha had “entered the mind of her glorious husband”, in an attempt to redeem himself. In other words, this sense of shame made Hanumana twist his kama-filled words, in an attempt to convince himself that whatever he earlier said was to explain Seetha's bhakti for Rama... But obviously, this did not convince him (nor would it convince anyone) completely, and hence he started to be more critical towards any subsequent feelings for the women in Lanka. Due to Hanumana being more critical towards any subsequent feelings, he starts to then describe Seetha and other Lankan women in a manner free from a conscious display of sexual attraction. For example, he ends verse 5.5.24b by addressing Seetha as "always superior compared to the best women (in Lanka)". Please take note of how Hanumana mellows down on the intensity of his display of sexual attraction by changing the words he used to describe Seetha and the other Lankan women. He earlier used words like "beautiful" and "seized by sexual passion" to describe Seetha, and words like "beautiful" and "suitable for mating" for the Lankan women he was closely observing. However, he now uses a more indirect description for the beauty of Seetha and these Lankan women. Instead of addressing them as "beautiful" he addresses them as "best women". Hanumana was clearly trying to suppress his sexual feelings towards these women after consciously realizing the implications of this sexual attraction. Being attracted to these "married women" would mean breaking the vow he earlier made regarding controlling his senses and not feeling sexually attracted to married women...
In the third verse (5.5.25), Hanumana shows sexual attraction (kama) mingled with compassion (karuna) towards Seetha. This display of kama towards Seetha was once again made in an indirect manner! Research shows that the compassion from the sight of a beautiful woman in tears evokes an increase in sexual attraction (in males) towards them[20]. Remember the kama-filled response by Virata's courtiers, after a grief ridden Draupadi in tears and with disheveled hair appealed  to them for justice (following what Kichaka did to her)? The same happened to Hanumana. In the third verse (5.5.25), he visualized Seetha as a woman in misery/grief, and shedding tears, thereby showing compassion towards her. This evoked the kama bhava in him. As a result, his subsequent description of Seetha has a sexual connotation associated with it, albeit in an indirect manner. For example, he indirectly alludes to sexual heat when he describes Seetha’s tears as “hot”. He then indirectly alludes to sexual curiosity when he describes her voice, which he had not yet heard, as “sweet”. In addition, he uses the word सुजात, meaning "of noble/excellent birth" to describe her eyelashes. This is in stark contrast to his earlier, more conscious description of kama, from verse 5.5.24, where he described her eyes as "beautiful/lovely" (राम). As we can see, these mentions of Seetha’s beauty (from verse 5.5.25) were all made in an indirect manner, embedded in Hanumana’s karuna for Seetha. The fact that Hanumana becomes more critical of his sexuality and tries to downplay it in verses 5.5.24b-25 shows that he was truly ashamed of feeling sexually attracted towards Seetha. This also explains why Hanumana was described as being struck by distress (दुःखाभिहत) and becoming dull (मन्द) for a while, upon mentally visualizing Seetha in the way he did above...
सीतामपश्यन् मनुजेश्वरस्य |रामस्य पत्नीम् वदताम् वरस्य |बभूव दुःखाभिहतश्चिरस्य |प्लवङ्गमो मन्द इवाचिरस्य || ५-५-२७
Hanumanathe best of the eloquent, was struck by distress for a long time, upon foreseeing Seetha, the wife of Rama, the Lord of men, . For a brief period, it was as if Hanumana became dull.
Sundara Kanda Section 5[17]   
After regaining composure, Hanumana searched through Lanka again (for Seetha) and eventually reached Ravana’s palace. Inside the palace, there were many mansions. At the center was the Pushpaka Vimana. Hanumana entered the Pushpaka Vimana, with an intent to find Seetha. Once he entered the Pushpaka Vimana, he noticed many of Ravana’s beautiful women (in Ravana’s harem, located inside of the Pushpaka Vimana), and described their beauty in the following manner:
तासाम् सम्व्ऱ्त दन्तानि मीलित अक्षाणि मारुतिः |
अपश्यत् पद्म गन्धीनि वदनानि सुयोषिताम् || ५-९-३७
Hanuma saw faces of those best women, with teeth covered by lips with closed eyes and with lotus fragrance.
प्रबुद्धानि इव पद्मानि तासाम् भूत्वा क्षपा क्षये |
पुनः सम्व्ऱ्त पत्राणि रात्राव् इव बभुः तदा || ५-९-३८
At that time, those faces shone which became like lotuses in blossom during day time and again were like lotuses with closed petals at night.
इमानि मुख पद्मानि नियतम् मत्त षट्पदाः |
अम्बुजानि इव फुल्लानि प्रार्थयन्ति पुनः पुनः || ५-९-३९
Hanuma thought that drunk bees definitely are desiring again and again these lotus faces like lotuses in blossom.
इति वा अमन्यत श्रीमान् उपपत्त्या महा कपिः |
मेने हि गुणतः तानि समानि सलिल उद्भवैः || ५-९-४०
The glorious great Hanuma thought as above by recourse to reason. He also thought thus "Those faces equal lotuses by their qualities such as beauty, fragrance, and others".
स च ताभिः परिव्ऱ्तः शुशुभे राक्षस अधिपः |
यथा हि उडु पतिः श्रीमामः ताराभिर् अभिसम्व्ऱ्तः || ५-९-४२
That lord of Rakshasas surrounded by those women shone like the radiant moon surrounded by stars.
याः च्यवन्ते अम्बरात् ताराः पुण्य शेष समाव्ऱ्ताः |
इमाः ताः सम्गताः क्ऱ्त्स्ना इति मेने हरिः तदा || ५-९-४३
Then Hanuma thought thus : "Whatever meteors together with residue of piety fall down from the sky, all those meteors had been together as these women".
ताराणाम् इव सुव्यक्तम् महतीनाम् शुभ अर्चिषाम् |
प्रभा वर्ण प्रसादाः च विरेजुः तत्र योषिताम् || ५-९-४४
There the luster, complexion and grace of those women clearly resembled great stars which emitted an auspicious radiance.
चन्द्र अंशु किरण आभाः च हाराः कासांचिद् उत्कटाः |हंसा इव बभुः सुप्ताः स्तन मध्येषु योषिताम् || ५-९-४९
The pearl chains, large and shining like rays of the Moon in the space between the breasts of some young women looked like sleeping swans.
हंस कारण्डव आकीर्णाः चक्र वाक उपशोभिताः |आपगा इव ता रेजुर् जघनैः पुलिनैर् इव || ५-९-५१
Those women with buttocks like river banks crowded with swans and Karandava birds, and abounded with Chakravaka birds were shining like rivers.
किन्किणी जाल सम्काशाः ता हेम विपुल अम्बुजाः |भाव ग्राहा यशः तीराः सुप्ता नद्य इव आबभुः || ५-९-५२
With their tiny bells round their girdle looking like buds, the bold golden ornaments like lotuses, their amorous gestures of love play like crocodiles and their radiant beauty like silver banks, the sleeping women shone like rivers.
मृदुष्व् अन्गेषु कासांचित् कुच अग्रेषु च संस्थिताः |बभूवुर् भूषणानि इव शुभा भूषण राजयः || ५-९-५३
The beautiful imprints made by the (heavy) ornaments on the tender limbs, breasts and nipples of some women appeared like many ornaments.
Sundara Kanda Section 9[21]   
As you can see above, after entering Ravana's harem and observing the beauty of Ravana's wives, Hanumana lost control over his senses for a moment. As a result, he describes the wives of Ravana in a manner filled with conscious sexual attraction. He starts off by specifically noting their teeth, lips, eyes, and fragrance, which he likens to that of a lotus (5.9.37).  After likening their face to lotuses, he then says that the faces appear like lotuses in blossom in the day, and lotuses with closed petals during the night (5.9.38). We can see some fantasization of their beauty here, considering that Hanumana observed these females only at nighttime (not in the daytime)... He was so attracted to the beauty of their faces that he then says that their lotus-like faces appeared so beautiful that bees intoxicated/excited by sexual passion (मत्त) would desire and enjoy them again and again (5.9.39). We can see yet some more fantasization of the beauty of these females, on the part of Hanumana... As we then see in verse 5.9.40, Hanumana alludes to his attraction towards the fragrance and beauty of these wives of Ravana. He then mentions that the beauty of the wives were such that they appeared like meteors or perhaps even great shining stars in the sky (5.9.42-44). After saying so, Hanumana pays very close attention to the breasts of these young women (whom he likens to sleeping swans), as well as the pearl chains in the space between these breasts (5.9.49). The fact that he pays much attention to the breasts of these sleeping women suggests that he was sexually attracted to their breasts. Remember the research study I talked about earlier, that suggested a link between visual attention to erotic stimuli and sexual attraction?... Hanumana then goes on to sexualize the buttocks/hips/vulva (जघनैः) of these beautiful women by likening them to river banks (5.9.51), and then pays very close attention to their amorous gestures of love play, radiant beauty, and nipples, which he also sexualizes, by likening them to the various aspects of nature (5.9.52-53). From this extensive, subjective description of the beauty of Ravana's wives by Hanumana, it should be quite obvious that Hanumana was sexually attracted to these women, and that he was consciously aware of that fact...
For that reason, after passing by these women and noting their beauty in extensive detail, Hanumana's critical analysis of his feelings he felt towards them kicked in... As a result, he stopped and took a moment to understand his inner feelings. Realizing these feelings of sexual attraction towards the wives of another man, Hanumana felt miserable. He then attempted to “redeem” himself in his own eyes by trying to convince himself that what he was attracted to was their inner qualities (गुण), not their external beauty. In other words, he attempted to convince himself that his attraction to them was not of a sexual nature: 
Image result for hanumana sad
पुनः च सो अचिन्तयद् आर्त रूपो |ध्रुवम् विशिष्टा गुणतो हि सीता |अथ अयम् अस्याम् क्ऱ्तवान् महात्मा |लन्का ईश्वरः कष्टम् अनार्य कर्म || ५-९-७३

Hanuman once again in a miserable state thought, 'Sita is surely superior than them all by virtue of her qualities. Alas, this lord of Lanka committed an ignoble, act (by abducting her).

Sundara Kanda Section 9[21]   

Please take note of how Hanumana praises the beauty of Ravana's wives throughout the entire Sundara Kanda Section 9, thereby suggesting that his attraction to them lied mainly in their beauty. In other words, the attraction was of a sexual nature. However, in the first part of the above verse (5.9.73a), he attempts to justify that Seetha is superior to all of Ravana's wives, by virtue of her qualities (गुणतः), not beauty. Logically speaking, if we look at the context of verse 5.9.73a, it would only be possible for Hanumana to reason that Seetha is superior to Ravana's wives if he made an argument why her beauty was superior to that of Ravana's wives. The reason for this being that throughout the entire Sundara Kanda Section 9, Hanumana was praising the beauty of Ravana's wives. There is barely any praise of their other qualities (गुण), by Hanumana... So, the most logical argument would take into account the beauty of Ravana's wives, not their other qualities (गुण). But that was clearly not the case, as we can see in verse 5.9.73a. In that verse, Hanumana compared the qualities (गुणof Ravana's wives to Seetha's qualities (गुण), and totally ignored the "beauty" of Ravana's wives that he was spellbound by ever since he entered Ravana's harem.

Why so? Why divert the discussion from the beauty of Ravana's wives, which Hanumana observed more of, to their internal qualities (गुण), that Hanumana barely took notice of?

The answer to this should not be too difficult to find if we look at the bigger picture... The fact that Hanumana ignored his earlier observations of the beauty of Ravana's wives, which he made in abundance in Sundara Kanda Section 9, and instead only took into account their qualities (गुण), which he had barely paid attention to in Sundara Kanda Section 9, strongly suggests that he wanted to hide from himself the fact that he paid most attention to the beauty of Ravana's wives. He was trying to manipulate his mind into believing that when he had previously observed and was attracted to Ravana's wives, he had solely placed his attention on their qualities (गुण), not their beauty... In other words, he was essentially trying to convince (or rather, "fool") his mind into believing that his attraction to Ravana's wives was due to their internal qualities (गुणand therefore not of a sexual nature... Anyone that has attempted to follow a life of brahmacharya is a live testimony to the fact that when a brahmacharya practitioner is sexually aroused, they would tend to produce such excuses in an attempt to persuade their mind that what they felt was not of a sexual nature, and thereby brush away this sexual arousal. This works to give the brahmacharya practitioner the relief that his/her vow of controlling the senses was not violated...  The same applied to Hanumana! After attempting to persuade his mind in a similar manner, Hanumana abruptly diverted his attention from Ravana's women, and focused it entirely on Ravana's evil (अनार्य) act of kidnapping Seetha (5.9.73b). As a result, without thinking twice about Ravana's wives, Hanumana then looked around for the evil (अनार्य) Ravana. This worked to prevent himself from further thought about these women, which inturn prevented him from re-establishing the sexual feelings for them, that he had just done away with...
After shifting his gaze around to find Ravana, Hanumana eventually saw Ravana and was stunned by his beauty... After spending a fair amount of time looking at Ravana and fancying him, Hanumana noticed many beautiful women lying around Ravana. Just like earlier, he paid very close attention to their beauty. He noticed their eyes, face, armpits, breasts, waist, belly, hips, and limbs in very close detail, and once again showed a conscious form of sexual attraction to them by using words like "charming", "beautiful", "golden", "like lotus petals", "like the moon", and "gobletlike" to describe those body parts (5.10.31-49). After examining those body parts in much detail, Hanumana quickly diverted his attention away from Ravana and those women (perhaps once again due to "shame"?). After shifting his gaze away from them, he then noticed some women sleeping on couches far away from Ravana (5.10.50). Among those women, Hanumana particularly paid attention to Mandodari, Ravana's most beautiful and favorite wife. Looking at her supernatural beauty, he fantasized her to be Seetha, and under the influence of sexual excitation, he hit a new low, was unable to control his senses, and as a result, had sex with her (i.e. he raped her):
तासाम् एक अन्त विन्यस्ते शयानाम् शयने शुभे |
ददर्श रूप सम्पन्नाम् अपराम् स कपिः स्त्रियम् || ५-१०-५०
That Hanuma saw among those women a very beautiful woman sleeping on an auspicious couch arranged alone at a side.
मुक्ता मणि समायुक्तैर् भूषणैः सुविभूषिताम् |
विभूषयन्तीम् इव च स्व श्रिया भवन उत्तमम् || ५-१०-५१
गौरीम् कनक वर्ण आभाम् इष्टाम् अन्तः पुर ईश्वरीम् |
कपिर् मन्द उदरीम् तत्र शयानाम् चारु रूपिणीम् || ५-१०-५२
Hanuma saw Mandodari with a beautiful form together with diamonds and pearls, well decorated by jewellery and with her self radiance as though decorating that great building with a fair complexion and with a radiance like golden colour, who was dear to her husband the lady of women in that gynaeceum sleeping there.
स ताम् दृष्ट्वा महा बाहुर् भूषिताम् मारुत आत्मजः |
तर्कयाम् आस सीता इति रूप यौवन सम्पदा || ५-१०-५३
हर्षेण महता युक्तो ननन्द हरि यूथपः |
That Hanuma with great arms seeing the woman well decorated, out of logic thought thus: "This is Seetha by the wealth of her appearance and her youth". That warrior of Vanaras was delighted together with sexual excitement.
आश्पोटयाम् आस चुचुम्ब पुच्चम् |
ननन्द चिक्रीड जगौ जगाम|
स्तम्भान् अरोहन् निपपात भूमौ |
निदर्शयन् स्वाम् प्रक्र्तिम् कपीनाम् || ५-१०-५४
He clasped his arms, kissed his penis, he was delighted, he was amorously playful, sang, paced showing his simian nature, climbed pillars and fell down on land.
Sundara Kanda Section 10[22]   
When Rama sent Hanumana to find Seetha, he would have given him many indicators of her in addition to her beauty, such as her character, behavior, habits, intellect, etc... However, Hanumana ignored all these indicators and fantasized this female being Seetha, just from seeing her beauty and youth, which sexually excited him. We can see the role of the sexual curiosity for Seetha that I previously talked about, in coming to this conclusion! After Hanumana saw the beautiful woman, he could no longer control his sexual excitement, and as a result, under sexual excitement, he kissed his penis (चुचुम्ब पुच्चम्), and was engaged in amorous play (चिक्रीड) with that woman (whom he thought was Seetha). The sexual curiosity he previously held and nurtured was manifested in the form of sexual intercourse.

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In the last verse above, Hanumana’s nature is described as “simian” by Valmiki. The reason for the Vanaras at times being called apes (कपि) by Valmiki, as I mentioned in a previous post[23], was their tribal nature, that involved no shame whatsoever with regards to matters such as nudity and sex. Hanumana’s simian nature was displayed in his behavior towards Mandodari, where he showed absolutely no shame in kissing his penis (sexual arousal?) upon seeing her beautiful body, and being amorously playful (sexual intercourse?) with her. This would explain the earlier Yuddha Kanda quote I posted, where Mandodari laments about feeling painful when Hanumana penetrated her in sexual intercourse:
"We felt painful, the moment Hanuma penetrated in sexual intercourse, by dint of his virility (semen virile), deep into the City of unchaste women, which was difficult to be penetrated in sexual intercourse even for gods."
As can be seen from that verse above, Mandodari laments about Hanumana conquering Lanka, the city of "unchaste women", by penetrating her and others in sexual intercourse. However, the question arises that if Hanumana was raping Mandodari when she was in Ravana’s harem in the presence of Ravana, why did Ravana not stop Hanumana. My answer would be that Sundara Kanda Section 10 mentions that Ravana was in deep sleep under the influence of wine, the sex he had with the women around him, and the related exhaustion. The women around him were also in deep sleep after sex, just like Ravana. So, Ravana and these women were in no position to wake up after being that drunk and exhausted from sex to save Mandodari from the hands of a passionate Hanumana.

After raping Mandodari, Hanumana rejected the previous judgement he made that the woman was Seetha, for obvious reasons... How could Hanumana face the fact that he had sex with a married woman, thereby breaking his vow of controlling his senses? The fact that this woman was the wife of his master made things much worse... As a result, Hanumana did not let his senses sway any further, he made his mind firm regarding Seetha, and hence right away rejected his thought of Mandodari being Seetha. After doing so, he started thinking for excuses to justify, to his ever inquisitive mind, why the woman could not have been Seetha. He then recalled Rama's words regarding the non-beauty indicators of Seetha, such as her extreme devotion to her husband (पतिव्रत). As a result, he used Seetha's devotion to her husband (पतिव्रत) as a justification why this woman must be some other lady instead of Seetha:
अवधूय च ताम् बुद्धिम् बभूव अवस्थितः तदा |जगाम च अपराम् चिन्ताम् सीताम् प्रति महा कपिः || ५-११-१
The great vanara, having rejected his judgement, became mentally firm towards Seetha and started thinking again.
न रामेण वियुक्ता सा स्वप्तुम् अर्हति भामिनी |न भोक्तुम् न अपि अलम्कर्तुम् न पानम् उपसेवितुम् || ५-११-२ न अन्यम् नरम् उपस्थातुम् सुराणाम् अपि च ईश्वरम् |न हि राम समः कश्चिद् विद्यते त्रिदशेष्व् अपि || ५-११-३ अन्या इयम् इति निश्चित्य पान भूमौ चचार सः | 
Passionate Sita, being away from Rama, will not sleep, will not eat or drink or adorn herself. How can she approach any other man even if he is the king of gods for there is none equal to Rama even among gods'. Having thus decided, Hanuman strolled about the banquet hall.
Sundara Kanda Section 11[24]   
Please take note of the fact that in verse 5.11.1, Valmiki says that Hanumana became "mentally firm towards Seetha". This suggests that prior to that, when he fantasized Mandodari to be Seetha and became sexually excited, his mind had swayed and was not firm towards Seetha. In that context, Hanumana now becoming mentally firm towards Seetha in verse 5.11.1 seems to be a reaction by him, driven by shame, upon consciously realizing his sexual attraction to whom he thought was Seetha. Furthermore, only after feeling sexually excited to her did Hanumana use Seetha's devotion to her husband (पतिव्रत) as an argument to suggest that the woman whom he was sexually excited towards was not Seetha. Prior to this sexual excitement, when he first saw her, such reasoning was not used by Hanumana. This suggests that Hanumana using this reasoning to reject his previous judgement was a product of him consciously realizing his sexual attraction to whom he believed was Seetha.

The shame associated with realizing that he broke the vow he earlier made of controlling his senses and that he was sexually attracted to Seetha was something that would have tormented Hanumana greatly, considering that even previously in Sundara Kanda Section 5, Hanumana was in a state of "distress" and "dullness" upon conscious realization of his sexual attraction towards Seetha. As a result, in order to reduce this mental agony and feel relieved, Hanumana tried to manipulate his mind into believing that the woman he was sexually attracted to was not Seetha, but instead someone else. So, he instantly made his swaying mind firm and rejected his previous judgement that the woman was Seetha. He then started thinking for a while and came up with some justifications why the woman could not have possibly been Seetha. Take note of the fact that according to verses 5.11.1-3, Hanumana first rejected the previous judgement he made, and then started thinking again. Normally, one would start thinking first, and then based on this thought, reject a previous judgement they had made. But it was the opposite for Hanumana, thereby suggesting that his priority was to reject his judgement and feel relieved. Additional thought on the identity of the woman was secondary for him.  This behavior is clearly a case of confirmation bias and just goes to show the extent of mental agony Hanumana was in at the time! His desperation to hide his sexual attraction towards Seetha from his own mind was quite evident...

After consoling his mind that the woman he was seeing was not Seetha and then giving some excuses to explain the former, we get to see some interesting behavior on the part of Hanumana. Unlike the typical, lengthy analytical thought process spanning many verses that Hanumana usually shows throughout the epic, he refused to discuss on the issue further and rushed away from the vicinity of Mandodari! This was quite similar to what he did in the case of Ravana's other wives that he was sexually attracted to, in Sundara Kanda Section 9. He was trying to manipulate his mind into believing that the lady he encountered was not Seetha by presenting an argument and then preventing his mind from formulating a counter thought by not thinking further on the issue and leaving the place in a jiffy. Of course this did not convince Hanumana completely, as he still addressed Seetha as a "passionate woman" (भामिनी) in verse 5.11.2, thereby suggesting that he was aware that even if the identity of the woman was not Seetha, he was still sexually attracted to Seetha in his mind. Furthermore, although he walked away from the area, the fact that he  raped a married female (i.e. Mandodari) still haunted him. Even if the woman was not Seetha, it did not change the fact that she was still a married woman, and that he was sexually attracted to her body. Feeling sexually attracted to such a woman would mean violating his vow of controlling his senses... This made Hanumana even more critical of any subsequent feelings for women, when moving further into Ravana's harem...

After departing from the vicinity of Mandodari, Hanumana walked down the hall in Ravana’s harem, and noticed some more of Ravana’s extremely beautiful wives fast asleep:
शयनानि अत्र नारीणाम् शून्यानि बहुधा पुनः |
परस्परम् समाश्लिष्य काश्चित् सुप्ता वर अन्गनाः || ५-११-२८ 
Hanuman saw many beds some unused and some occupied by excellent women sleeping, embracing one another.
तासाम् उच्च्वास वातेन वस्त्रम् माल्यम् च गात्रजम् |
न अत्यर्थम् स्पन्दते चित्रम् प्राप्य मन्दम् इव अनिलम् || ५-११-३० 
The lovely clothes and garlands on the bodies of women were moving mildly by their exhalations as if shaken by the gentle breeze.
श्याम अवदाताः तत्र अन्याः काश्चित् कृष्णा वर अन्गनाः || ५-११-३३
काश्चित् कान्चन वर्ण अन्ग्यः प्रमदा राक्षस आलये | 
There in the demons abode were women who were fair, some excellent women with dark and others with golden complexion.
तासाम् निद्रा वशत्वाच् च मदनेन विमूर्चितम् || ५-११-३४
पद्मिनीनाम् प्रसुप्तानाम् रूपम् आसीद् यथैव हि | 
Withered due to indulgence in sex they were overcome with sleep. The form of the women was like sleeping lotuses .
Sundara Kanda Section 11[24]   
From the above passage, it seems that when Hanumana first saw these women, he developed a subconscious form of sexual attraction towards them. This is seen in the way he starts off, in verse 5.11.28, by addressing them as "excellent/best women" (वर अन्गनाः), as opposed to a description revealing a more conscious form of sexual attraction, such as "lovely" or "gorgeous". Furthermore, Hanumana alludes towards subconscious sexual attraction when he brings to life the exhalations of the sleeping women by likening them to a "gentle breeze" (5.11.30). However, it did not take long for this sexual attraction to evolve into a more a more conscious nature. Soon enough, by verses 5.11.33-34, Hanumana paid close attention towards the complexion of the womens’ bodies and described them in a manner revealing sexual attraction towards them. He then went on to say that they looked like sleeping lotuses, thereby showing a more conscious form of sexual attraction to their bodies. However, quickly after making this remark showing a conscious form of sexual attraction, Hanumana's intensified critical analysis of his feelings towards these women kicked in and as a result, he became very much worried (चिन्ताम्). The reason for this was that according to him, it was morally inappropriate to see another man’s wives in their inner apartments, with feelings of sexual desire; it was violating his brahmacharya code. He attempted to justify his behavior by trying to convince his mind that although he looked at the wives of Ravana, he was not filled with any sexual desire, hence there was no sin:
निरीक्षमाणः च ततः ताः स्त्रियः स महा कपिः || ५-११-३६
जगाम महतीम् चिन्ताम् धर्म साध्वस शन्कितः |
The great monkey was very much worried as he thought he had transgressed the moral code by watching the women.
पर दार अवरोधस्य प्रसुप्तस्य निरीक्षणम् || ५-११-३७
इदम् खलु मम अत्यर्थम् धर्म लोपम् करिष्यति |
'Observing the wives of others in this manner in their inner chambers very much amounts to transgression of moral code by me'. ( thought he)
न हि मे पर दाराणाम् दृष्टिर् विषय वर्तिनी ||५-११-३८
अयम् च अत्र मया दृष्टः पर दार परिग्रहः |
'I did see these wives of another, but not with a sensual mind. I have only seen them but not with foul intention'.
Sundara Kanda Section 11[24]    
Anybody that has attempted to practice "brahmacharya" in their life would know that when sexual attraction is not evoked in a man upon seeing a female, he would just pass by the female normally, with a firm, composed mind. However, if the individual feels even the slightest attraction to the body of another female, he would notice that instantly, and this fact would torment his mind for long. As a result, he would create justifications to explain that this feeling was not sexual in nature (i.e. the feeling was outside of the realms of sexual desire). This works to trick the mind into believing that the individual’s attempt to control the senses was not broken upon seeing that woman. Same was the case here. The fact that Hanumana was worried seeing the wives of Ravana in detail and subsequently made justifications for that act by saying that he felt no sensual feelings clearly suggests that he knew deep within that he was attracted to Ravana’s wives…
Give that a moment to sink in!…
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Hanumana then goes on to further reinforce these justifications by saying that since his mind was controlled (i.e. he was not under the influence of kama), he felt no passionate feeling, and therefore there was no sin in seeing the wives of Ravana and even having illicit sex with them, as he did in the case of Mandodari et al:
कामम् दृष्ट्वा मया सर्वा विश्वस्ता रावण स्त्रियः || ५-११-४०न तु मे मनसः किंचिद् वैकृत्यम् उपपद्यते |
'It is true I saw all the loyal wives of Ravana but without any foul desire. Indeed in my mind no passionate feeling was ever aroused'.
मनो हि हेतुः सर्वेषाम् इन्द्रियाणाम् प्रवर्तते || ५-११-४१शुभ अशुभास्व् अवस्थासु तच् च मे सुव्यवस्थितम् |
'The mind is the reason for the the involvement of the senses in illicit sex. Whether in an auspicious or inauspicious state, that mind of mine is very steady’.
Sundara Kanda Section 11[24]    
Take note of the second verse (5.11.41)… In that verse, Hanumana very clearly mentions that he had illicit sex (प्रवर्तते) in Lanka. This statement by him supports my earlier claim that Hanumana had raped Mandodari. It also gives rise to the possibility that Hanumana had sex with other Lankan women as well. Since Mandodari laments on the behalf of Ravana’s other consorts that they all felt painful when Hanumana penetrated them in sexual intercourse, it suggests that this reference of illicit sex by Hanumana refers to other wives of Ravana that Hanumana had seen in Sundara Kanda Sections 9-11, instead of the commoners he was observing in Sundara Kanda Section 5. That being said, it is quite clear from the two verses above that Hanumana was trying to justify the fact that he had illicit sex by stating that his mind which controlled his senses was under his control. He was essentially saying that since this mind was in control, his senses, that caused him to engage in the acts of illicit sex, were also in control, and hence the acts of sexual intercourse he engaged in were not inappropriate, as they were also under his conscious control... In other words, he was saying that his vow of controlling his senses was not violated upon raping Ravana's wives...

Very wishful thinking indeed!

It just goes to show to what extent an individual can go to manipulate his mind into believing something that he knows is incorrect. Sex offenders should learn from Hanumana how to brush away their crimes by saying that they were not under the influence of sexual passion when they committed the rape, hence the victims should not feel as if they were violated (sarcasm intended)!

But on a more serious note…

The fact that Hanumana gives a lengthy explanation (spanning 5–6 verses) to try to convince himself why his behavior of seeing Ravana’s wives was not inappropriate suggests that he had trouble trying to convince his mind that he was not attracted to these females. In all likeliness, Hanumana’s mind was not fully convinced that he did not feel any sexual passion towards Ravana’s wives. That is also why he then feels it necessary to give his mind yet another lengthy explanation for why his entering the inner chambers of Ravana was a necessity to find Seetha. He was just not convinced by his previous mediocre explanation that he did not feel any sexual attraction despite entering Ravana’s harem, seeing the naked wives, and mating with them:
न अन्यत्र हि मया शक्या वैदेही परिमार्गितुम् || ५-११-४२
स्त्रियो हि स्त्रीषु द्ऱ्श्यन्ते सदा सम्परिमार्गणे |
"By me it is not possible to search Seetha at another place. Always during search women will be seen among other women."
यस्य सत्त्वस्य या योनिः तस्याम् तत् परिमार्ग्यते || ५-११-४३
न शक्यम् प्रमदा नष्टा मृगीषु परिमार्गितुम् |
"To an animal of whatever race that animal is searched in that race; a woman missing is not possible to be searched among female deer."
तद् इदम् मार्गितम् तावत् शुद्धेन मनसा मया || ५-११-४४
रावण अन्तः पुरम् सरम् दृश्यते न च जानकी |
"For that reason the entirety of this, Ravana's house has been searched by me with a pure mind (but) Seetha alone cannot be seen."
Sundara Kanda Section 11[24] 
Please take note how even after this explanation, Hanumana found it necessary to specifically make an emphasis on his belief that he searched the entire house with a “pure mind” (शुद्धेन मनसा). This should make it evident that deep within, Hanumana was still not convinced by his earlier explanation… The guilt of being filled with sexual passion was haunting him, and as a result, he was continuously attempting to convince himself that there was no attraction to these women on his part. This really made him miserable. As I will show in the following paragraphs, this misery that he failed in being able to control his senses shattered his former pride (of being a brahmacharya) and made him careless of his subsequent outpour of kama. Hanumana, with a shattered pride ceased to care about the fact that he was sexually attracted to females in Lanka and had raped them, promoting a more sexually aggressive behavior in himself!

This behavior can be seen even in our daily life. If a student who scores poorly in school makes up his mind to do well in the next semester, he will put in much effort in the subsequent semester to get better grades. But a few major failures in tests during that semester could possibly shatter his self confidence, cause him to feel dejected and think of himself as a failure. This would result in him ceasing to care about his performance throughout the rest of the semester. He would not care even if he fails in the next tests, as his self confidence would have already been shattered. He would no longer believe himself competent to get better grades in the next semester. Similar was the case for Hanumana. After experiencing a series of failures in controlling his sexual passion, he no longer cared for how sexually aggressive he was, in both thoughts and action, due to this shattered pride! As a result, unlike his earlier behavior, he was no longer ashamed of his kama-based feelings, nor did he try to suppress them. In fact, as later descriptions would show us, after this moment, he became much more expressive of his sexuality. It was as if the sexual aspect of Hanumana's character was undergoing a transformation...

After Hanumana was unable to find Seetha in Ravana’s inner apartments, Valmiki then said:
देव गन्धर्व कन्याः च नाग कन्याः च वीर्यवान् || ५-११-४५
अवेक्षमाणो हनुमान् न एव अपश्यत जानकीम् |
The strong Hanuma observing girls from devas, gandharvas and girls from nagas did not see Janaki.
ताम् अपश्यन् कपिः तत्र पश्यमः च अन्या वर स्त्रियः || ५-११-४६
अपक्रम्य तदा वीरः प्रध्यातुम् उपचक्रमे |
The powerful Hanuma not seeing her there and seeing other best women then started to think deeply going far from there.
Sundara Kanda Section 11[24] 
Valmiki describes that Hanumana started to think deeply in verse 5.11.46. The obvious reason for this deep thought was the fact that Hanumana was not able to see Seetha. But a close examination of the sanskrit words used in the verses reveals something more.

In the first verse (5.11.45), the translators translated “वीर्यवान्” as “the one (Hanumana) endowed with strength”. However, as I have mentioned earlier, वीर्य also means "virility/semen virile". Hence, another (and more appropriate) translation of “वीर्यवान्” would be “the one (Hanumana) endowed with virility”. Since Hanumana was addressed as वीर्यवान् in the context of him observing the Deva, Gandharva, and Naga ladies, it suggests that he had sex with some of the Deva, Gandharva, and Naga females he was seeing at the present moment. The second verse (5.11.46) mentions that Hanumana started to think deeply after not seeing Seetha in the vicinity, but instead only seeing these “other best women” that he had sex with. Since the emphasis is placed on the word "other", it suggests that Hanumana considered Seetha as one among these "best women(i.e. Deva, Gandharva, and Naga women) he had sex with. This alludes that Hanumana wanted to exercise his वीर्य (semen virile/virility) on Seetha, just as he did in the case of the other best women (i.e. Deva, Gandharva, and Naga women). However, since Seetha was nowhere to be seen, it prevented him from doing so, thereby causing him to get worried and think deeply! We can see his outflow of kama beginning to build up over here...

After Hanumana left the vicinity of those women, he revisited the bowers of creepers, picture galleries and domitories located in the midst of the mansion, to search for Seetha. But even there he could not find her. So, for a moment, he thought of returning to Sugriva without finding Seetha. But then he remembered the tyrannical nature of Sugriva. He remembered that Sugriva said that if the Vanaras return without finding Seetha, he would kill them. So he then thought that in order to avoid this brutal death at the hands of Sugriva, all the Vanaras with Angada and Jambavan would resolve to fast till death, just as they had earlier resolved to do prior to Sampati giving them the location of Ravana's Lanka. Thinking thus, Hanumana entered a state of despair…

He then thought that the best solution would be to not find shortcuts, but instead to once again search meticulously till Seetha is found:
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उत्पतन् निपतमः च अपि तिष्ठन् गच्चन् पुनः क्वचित् |अपावृण्वमः च द्वाराणि कपाटानि अवघट्टयन् || ५-१२-१५प्रविशन् निष्पतमः च अपि प्रपतन्न् उत्पतन्न् अपि |सर्वम् अपि अवकाशम् स विचचार महा कपिः || ५-१२-१६
The great vanara searched all over again and again jumping up and down, stopping for a while and moving, opening and closing doors, by crossing, entering and exiting, jumping up and down. Thus he moved about and searched whereever there was scope to search.
चतुर् अन्गुल मात्रो अपि न अवकाशः स विद्यते |रावण अन्तः पुरे तस्मिन् यम् कपिर् न जगाम सः || ५-१२-१७
Even a space of four fingers in the inner chambers of Ravana was not left out in his search for Sita.
Sundara Kanda Section 12[25] 
Note Hanumana’s increased enthusiasm in searching for Seetha (i.e. he is described as jumping up and down many times during the search)! This increased energy level and enthusiasm can be explained by the fact that Hanumana was sexually aroused and eager to vent his वीर्य (semen virile/virility) on Seetha, as I mentioned earlier. While searching for Seetha, he saw many more beautiful women of Ravana, but could not find Seetha, causing him to feel despondent:
रूपेण अप्रतिमा लोके वरा विद्या धर स्त्रियः |
दृटा हनूमता तत्र न तु राघव नन्दिनी || ५-१२-२०
Hanuman could see even the women of vidyadharas who were matchless in beauty among women in the world but not Janaki the beloved of Raghava.
नाग कन्या वर आरोहाः पूर्ण चन्द्र निभ आननाः |
दृष्टा हनूमता तत्र न तु सीता सुमध्यमा || ५-१२-२१
Hanuman could see there moonfaced daughters of nagas with charming limbs but not the slimwaisted Sita.
सो अपश्यमः ताम् महा बाहुः पश्यमः च अन्या वर स्त्रियः |
विषसाद महा बाहुर् हनूमान् मारुत आत्मजः || ५-१२-२३
The longarmed Hanuman, son of the Windgod was able to see other best women but not Sita. So he became despondent.
उद्योगम् वानर इन्द्राणम् प्लवनम् सागरस्य च |
व्यर्थम् वीक्ष्य अनिल सुतः चिन्ताम् पुनर् उपागमत् || ५-१२-२४
The son of the Wind god, the great monkey realised the futility of his efforts in crossing the sea. He brooded again.
Sundara Kanda Section 12[25]    
In the first two verses (5.12.20-21), Valmiki describes how Hanumana sees the Vidyadhara and Naga women of Ravana that were matchless in beauty, with charming limbs. The fact that Valmiki describes their beauty in depth suggests that Hanumana was paying close attention to it, and was therefore attracted to their beautiful bodies. Then, in the third verse (5.12.23), Valmiki mentions that Hanumana saw these "other best women", but not Seetha. Keep in mind that the Deva, Gandharva, and Naga women that Hanumana had sex with at the end of Sundara Kanda Section 11 were also described as "other best women". This suggests two things. Firstly, it suggests that perhaps, there is something common between these two groups of women. In other words, Hanumana did to these "other best" Vidyadhara and Naga women what he did to the "other best" Deva, Gandharva and Naga women at the end of Sundara Kanda Section 11 (i.e. he had sex with them). This is supported by the fact that he was sexually attracted to the Vidyadhara and Naga women. Secondly, it suggests that Hanumana was despondent because although he could see these "other best women" that he had sex with, he could not see Seetha. The fact that the emphasis is placed on the word "other" suggests that Hanumana considered Seetha as one among these "best women" that he had sex with. This implies that he wanted to see Seetha for the purposes of sexuality (i.e. he wanted to have sex with her), just as he did in the case of these other best women that he had sex with. However, since he could not find her, he was despondent. In the fourth verse (5.12.24),  it was mentioned that Hanumana brooded again, but this time for another reason. This time, the reason being that him crossing the sea spanning 100 yojanas would be futile if Seetha was not found. If Hanumana did not find Seetha, the Vanaras would all have to starve to death in the Vindhya Mountains, to prevent a brutal punishment from the tyrannous Sugriva!

As I mentioned above, the third verse suggests that Hanaumana was pining to see Seetha for the purposes of sexuality (i.e. he was attracted to her and wanted to have sex with her). This is supported by the fact that when he was searching for Seetha, he described her in a manner filled with kama. He shows no shame in sexualizing Seetha in the following manner:
भूयिष्ठम् लोडिता लन्का रामस्य चरता प्रियम् |न हि पश्यामि वैदेहीम् सीताम् सर्व अन्ग शोभनाम् || ५-१३-३
"The city of Lanka has been mostly explored by me attempting for the pleasure of Rama. But I am unable to see Seetha, beautiful in all limbs, and the daughter of Videha."
अथवा निहिता मन्ये रावणस्य निवेशने || ५-१३-१५नूनम् लालप्यते मन्दम् पन्जरस्था इव शारिका |
"Or, I think Sita might have been imprisoned in a cage like a myna in Ravana's palace. She will be surely crying.
जनकस्य कुले जाता राम पत्नी सुमध्यमा || ५-१३-१६कथम् उत्पल पत्र अक्षी रावणस्य वशम् व्रजेत् |
"How could Janaki, the daughter of Janaka, Rama's wife, the lady with a beautiful waist and eyes like lotus petals, come under the fold of Ravana?
तद् उन्नसम् पाण्डुर दन्तम् अव्रणम् |शुचि स्मितम् पद्म पलाश लोचनम् |द्रक्ष्ये तद् आर्या वदनम् कदा न्व् अहम् |प्रसन्न तारा अधिप तुल्य दर्शनम् || ५-१३-६८
'Oh when and how would I behold that beautiful noble lady of stainless character, with a Moonlike face, prominent nose, white teeth, pleasant smile and with eyes like lotus petals?
क्षुद्रेण पापेन नृशंस कर्मणा |सुदारुण अलाम्कृत वेष धारिणा|बल अभिभूता अबला तपस्विनी |कथम् नु मे दृष्ट पथे अद्य सा भवेत् || ५-१३-६९
"How will I set my eyes on that gentle, frail and suffering thing now, who has been abducted by that mean, cruel sinner of dreadful look?"
Sundara Kanda Section 13[26]    
We can see Hanumana’s conscious flow of kama outpour in these verses; especially the last two verses… In the last verse (5.13.69), we see Hanumana’s karuna bhava for Seetha when he addresses her as a “gentle, frail, and suffering thing”. This karuna bhava intensified his sexual attraction towards Seetha, allowing him to describe Seetha in the manner he did in the second last verse (5.13.68). Furthermore, in the last verse (5.13.69), Hanuman also shows krodha bhava towards Ravana, as he addresses him as a “mean, cruel sinner of dreadful look”. Research has shown that anger intensifies sexual arousal[27], and that can be seen here, where Hanumana’s krodha bhava intensifies his sexual arousal for Seetha, leading him to describe her as a “beautiful noble lady of stainless character, with a Moonlike face, prominent nose, white teeth, pleasant smile and with eyes like lotus petals”…

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This krodha bhava also urges Hanumana to vent out his krodha towards Ravana. As a result, Hanumana plans to kill Ravana, in a state of intense anger, after being unable to find Seetha in Ravana’s inner apartments:
रावणम् वा वधिष्यामि दशग्रीवम् महा बलम् || ५-१३-४९कामम् अस्तु हृता सीता प्रत्याचीर्णम् भविष्यति |
"I will kill Ravana, this mighty, tenheaded demon. Sita was indeed carried away by him. This (killing him) can be a fitting reply to his evil action. My desire would be fulfilled.
अथवा एनम् समुत्क्षिप्य उपरि उपरि सागरम् || ५-१३-५०रामाय उपहरिष्यामि पशुम् पशु पतेर् इव |
"Or else, I shall carry him across the sea and put him before Rama like an animal to the Lord of animals."
 Sundara Kanda Section 13[26]    
When under the influence of krodha bhava and making such thoughts, Hanumana all of a sudden, noticed the Ashoka Grove and thought that Seetha might be there. Thereupon, Hanumana put his krodha-based thoughts of killing Ravana backseat for a while, so that he could think rationally and effectively find Seetha! After temporarily curbing these feelings of krodha, he then decided to probe the Ashoka Grove, to look for Seetha:
इति चिन्ता समापन्नः सीताम् अनधिगम्य ताम् || ५-१३-५१ध्यान शोका परीत आत्मा चिन्तयाम् आस वानरः |
Distressed over his inability to find Sita, Hanuman's mind was overcome with anxiety and he started thinking further.
यावत् सीताम् न पश्यामि राम पत्नीम् यशस्विनीम् || ५-१३-५२तावद् एताम् पुरीम् लन्काम् विचिनोमि पुनः पुनः |
"Till I find the virtuous Sita, wife of Rama in this Lanka, I shall keep searching everywhere again and again.
अशोक वनिका च अपि महती इयम् महा द्रुमा || ५-१३-५५इमाम् अभिगमिष्यामि न हि इयम् विचिता मया |
"Here is the Ashoka grove with huge trees. I will go there. I have not looked for her in this place.
स तेभ्यः तु नमः कृत्वा सुग्रीवाय च मारुतिः |दिशः सर्वाः समालोक्य अशोक वनिकाम् प्रति || ५-१३-६०
Having offered salutations to all gods as well as to Sugriva, he looked at all quarters and left for the Ashoka grove.
Sundara Kanda Section 13[26]    
Just when Hanumana was leaving to go towards the Ashoka Grove, he thought about the task that would be at hand when he would reach the Ashoka Grove… So he planned ahead, prior to reaching the vicinity of the Grove. Hanumana thought that the Ashoka Grove would be guarded by many demons, and hence planned to enter it in the small size he was already in (remember that he entered Lanka in the size of a cat?), to prevent being caught by these demon guards and Ravana:
स गत्वा मनसा पूर्वम् अशोक वनिकाम् शुभाम् |
उत्तरम् चिन्तयाम् आस वानरो मारुत आत्मजः || ५-१३-६१
Hanuman started thinking again about his task after reaching the auspicious Ashoka grove.
ध्रुवम् तु रक्षो बहुला भविष्यति वन आकुला |
अशोक वनिका चिन्त्या सर्व संस्कार संस्कृता || ५-१३-६२
'This Ashoka grove filled with many trees, guarded by many demons is carefully tended. It must be sacred.
रक्षिणः च अत्र विहिता नूनम् रक्षन्ति पादपान् |
भगवान् अपि सर्व आत्मा न अतिक्षोभम् प्रवायति || ५-१३-६३
सम्क्षिप्तो अयम् मया आत्मा च राम अर्थे रावणस्य च |
"The guards posted there are surely protecting the grove. The divinity pervading all over me (the wind) must also have been controlled as it is also not blowing violently. I have turned my body small for Rama's cause and also to save myself from Ravana.
Sundara Kanda Section 13[26]    
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Hanumana Finds Seetha in the Ashoka Grove

After deciding to be very cautious when entering the Ashoka Grove, Hanumana, who had already made an exit from the Pushpaka Vimana, then proceeded towards the Ashoka Grove and saw a boundary wall separating the Pushpaka Vimana from the Ashoka Grove. To pass that wall, he climbed on it, and saw the Ashoka Grove in much more detail. When seeing the Grove, Hanumana’s hair on all his limbs (सर्व अन्गः) was described to be erect (सम्हृष्ट)!
स तु सम्हृष्ट सर्व अन्गः प्राकारस्थो महा कपिः |
पुष्पित अग्रान् वसन्त आदौ ददर्श विविधान् द्रुमान् || ५-१४-२
सालान् अशोकान् भव्यामः च चम्पकामः च सुपुष्पितान् |
उद्दालकान् नाग वृक्षामः चूतान् कपि मुखान् अपि || ५-१४-३
That great Hanuma with errect hair on all limbs, being on enclosure wall saw various trees such as Sal, beautiful Ashoka, Champaka full of flowers, Uddalaka, Naga, mango trees with their fruit in the colour of the snout of a monkey, in full blossom at the start of the spring. 
Sundara Kanda Section 14[28] 
If we take the literal meaning of the aforementioned verses, it would suggest that Hanumana was looking at a vast array of trees in the Ashoka Garden when this physiological response occurred. However, there is significant reason for us to believe that Valmiki did not intend us to take the verses literally! Throughout the Valmiki Ramayana, the poet has used trees to symbolize women... He hints at this through the speech of Sugriva upon Vali's death. When Vali dies, Sugriva laments and says:
पाप्मानम् इन्द्रस्य मही जलम् च वृक्षाः च कामम् जगृहुः स्त्रियः च |
को नाम पाप्मानम् इमम् सहेत शाखा मृगस्य प्रतिपत्तुम् इच्छेत् || ४-२४-१४
"Earth, waters, trees and women took the burden of Indra's sins, but who in name will bear the burden of this sin of mine, that too the sin of a monkey, who wishes to share?
Kishkindha Kanda Section 24[16] 
This verse above suggests that the common link between all of nature (i.e. earth, water, trees) and women are Indra's sins... Since trees and women both contain Indra's sins (i.e. both are related), trees can be used to symbolize women... Likewise, earth (i.e. land, mountains, etc...) and water can also be used to symbolize women. This is one strong reason for us to believe the vast array of trees that Hanumana was seeing, were infact the various types of women present in the Ashoka Grove! I will provide more convincing reasons why the trees in the Ashoka Grove symbolize beautiful women, in the subsequent paragraphs, as I analyze more verses spoken by the poet upon Hanumana entering the grove...

For now, lets go back to the verses 5.14.2-3, where Hanumana gets an erection of hair on all bodily limbs upon seeing the trees in the Ashoka Grove... Research today shows us that hair erection occurs due to variety of reasons, the most common being extreme cold and extreme emotion (i.e. anxiety, fear, pleasure, sexual arousal)[29]. In this case the former option does not seem likely, as no drastic change in temperature in Lanka was mentioned when Hanumana entered the Ashoka Grove. Prior entering the Ashoka Grove, there was no mention of the erections. The erections only occurred after Hanumana entered the grove and saw its trees. The next options we have are the different types of extreme emotions. We can rule out anxiety and fear from this list. The reason for this is that Hanumana was not described as being anxious or scared after entering the Ashoka Grove. He was only showed those emotions in the Pushpaka Vimana (i.e. prior to entering the Ashoka Grove) when he could not find Seetha. At that time, he had no bodily hair erections. So there is absolutely no reason to believe that these erections were due to the extreme emotions of anxiety and fear. Non-sexual pleasure (i.e. joy, happiness) upon seeing the trees in the Ashoka Grove also does not seem like a plausible reason for the bodily hair erections. My rationale for this is that Hanumana lived in Kishkindha, where there were many Ashoka trees as well as the aforementioned other varieties. It was obviously not the first time Hanumana was seeing beautiful trees and a beautiful grove. From the previous mentions of Hanumana passing by environments where such trees were present (i.e. Pampa River and its surroundings), we know that he showed no great attraction to them. Furthermore, after leaving from Lanka and returning to Kishkindha, he saw Sugriva's beautiful Madhuvanam. However, he did not stop to adore its beauty. Instead, he along with his fellow Vanaras, destroyed that grove and exerted violence against the guards of that grove that attempted to stop him... That being said, it makes no sense for Hanumana to find pleasure seeing even the most beautiful trees because, unlike Rama, he was not attracted to the wilderness and wildlife in general... In fact, the later verses in Sundara Kanda Section 14 describe Hanumana as destroying all the trees in the grove... Is this the behavior of one attracted to the trees in the grove?... I definitely don't think so...

We are therefore left with sexual pleasure and sexual arousal. This seems like the most plausible cause for the erections, because throughout Hanumana's stay in Lanka, he was (earlier) described many times as being sexually attracted to the women there and having these bodily hair erections (सम्हृष्ट) in response to that. This suggests that the trees in the Ashoka Grove that Hanumana was seeing were symbolic and represented women! Hanumana saw these women, and was sexually aroused, causing hair erections all over his body! In that sense, when he was described later on in the section as stripping these trees of their fruits, flowers, and leaves, and subsequently and crushing the trees with his hands, feet, and penis, it suggests that Hanumana stripped the women of their clothes and then manhandled and raped these women... I will talk more about this in the subsequent paragraphs...

So... After Hanumana saw these symbolic trees (i.e. women) and was sexually aroused, he dashed towards these symbolic trees (i.e. women) very rapidly... Indeed, the sexual arousal and passion (that I described above) towards these women urged him to rush towards them, like a Naraacha (iron) arrow released from a bow string, towards the grove, filled with trees.

अथ आम्र वण संचन्नाम् लता शत समावृताम् |
ज्या मुक्त इव नाराचः पुप्लुवे वृक्ष वाटिकाम् || ५-१४-४ 
Thereafter Hanumana leaped like a Naraacha (iron) arrow released from bow string, towards the garden covered by mango trees and surrounded by hundreds of creepers.  
Sundara Kanda Section 14[28] 

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If we analyze this simile used in the context of the aforementioned sexual background, we can see that the arrow being as strong as iron symbolizes Hanumana’s powerful virility, the bowstring symbolizes Hanumana's vow to control his senses, and the grove with its plants and trees symbolizes the various beautiful women in the Ashoka Grove... The simile suggests that after Hanumana breaks his vow of controlling his senses, the bowstring that restrained the deadly Naraacha arrow of his invincible (like iron) virility, undergoes a disturbance and is no longer able to restrain it, thereby releasing it. This invincible virility that is then released, rushes towards the symbolic trees (i.e. beautiful women) and subsequently crushes them via forced sexual intercourse (i.e. rape). The crushing of these symbolic trees (i.e. rape) is detailed in the subsequent verses in Sundara Kanda Section 14, which I will discuss in detail.
However, prior to discussing those verses...

At this point, I would like to bring up one important question... Prior to entering the grove, Hanumana was apprehensive of the security in the grove and hence decided to proceed in the grove very cautiously... However, here he is charging into the grove, disregarding all thought he earlier had... What is the reason for this behavior of his?

Instense kama was the motivating factor that blinded Hanumana and made him disregard the security in the Grove, that he was earlier apprehensive about, and charge to the Grove with full speed. Kama being a factor that blinds the common sense and ability of individuals to reason is very well known to us. When one is blinded by lust, they are generally unable to think rationally. Remember how Jayadratha was blinded by kama and attempted to kidnap the wife of the powerful Pandavas, disregarding their bravery that was superior to his own? Or perhaps how Kichaka was blinded by kama and raped the wife of the Pandavas, despite Draupadi telling him how brave her husbands were? Or perhaps Ravana, who ignored all rationality when consumed by kama and took an impulsive decision of kidnapping his enemy's wife?... Such a decision allowed Seetha to manipulate him to a great extent and led to his and Lanka's downfall... So, quite often, people lose the ability to reason when blinded by intense passion. That is exactly what happened to Hanumana here...


If we decide to ignore all symbolism and say that the trees were simply trees and did not symbolize women, then we have a problem... In this situation, Hanumana could not have been blinded by kama (i.e. which person lusts after a tree?). So, then why would he behave like a fool and rush towards the garden in full speed, thereby making himself an easy target for the guards in the grove to catch and imprison? This is certainly a disconnect in the logic, that can be bridged if we accept my proposal that the trees symbolized women...

Now moving back to the verses that describe Hanumana entering the Ashoka Grove...

When Hanumana rushes towards the symbolic trees, like the released Naraacha (iron) arrow, he is described to have woken up the birds that were sleeping on these symbolic trees. As a result, these birds then quickly flew away from the trees... When they flew away, their wings hit the tree branches, causing flowers of various kinds to shower down onto Hanumana and onto the ground. Hanumana, covered with these flowers, then began to run, very energetically, in all directions, into the cluster of these symbolic trees (perhaps to scare away any more birds that remained on the trees?):

मार्गमाणो वर आरोहाम् राज पुत्रीम् अनिन्दिताम् |
सुख प्रसुप्तान् विहगान् बोधयाम् आस वानरः || ५-१४-९

Hanuma searching the royal daughter Seetha with excellent limbs and without blame, woke up birds in comfortable sleep.

उत्पतद्भिर् द्विज गणैः पक्षैः सालाः समाहताः |अनेक वर्णा विविधा मुमुचुः पुष्प वृष्टयः || ५-१४-१०

Trees hit by wings of groups of birds in flight showered flowers of different colours.

पुष्प अवकीर्णः शुशुभे हनुमान् मारुत आत्मजः |
अशोक वनिका मध्ये यथा पुष्पमयो गिरिः || ५-१४-११

The son of Lord Vayu, Hanuma sprinkled with flowers shone like a mountain of flowers in the middle of Ashoka garden.

दिशः सर्व अभिदावन्तम् वृक्ष षण्ड गतम् कपिम् |
द्ऱ्ष्ट्वा सर्वाणि भूतानि वसन्त इति मेनिरे || ५-१४-१२

Seeing Hanuma running in all directions in the cluster of trees, all living creatures thought Him to be Vasanta, the lord of spring.

वृक्षेभ्यः पतितैः पुष्पैर् अवकीर्णा पृथग् विधैः |
रराज वसुधा तत्र प्रमदा इव विभूषिता || ५-१४-१३

Strewn with flowers of various colours fallen from the trees of various kinds, the goddess of earth looked charming like a young woman profusely bedecked.

Sundara Kanda Section 14
This passage posted above does contain lots of symbolism... For example, the birds are symbolic, and so are the trees and the flowers on the trees. However, I will refrain from commenting right now on what these elements of the Ashoka Garden symbolize. The subsequent verses in Sundara Kanda Section 14 do give us lots of hints regarding what these elements symbolize, so as I present those verses below, I will discuss the symbolism present. I will then refer back to this passage posted above to make more sense of what is actually happening to the Grove when Hanumana rushes into it...

Sundara Kanda Section 14 then goes on to describe the manhandling of these symbolic trees by Hanumana:

तरस्विना ते तरवः तरसा अभिप्रकम्पिताः |
कुसुमानि विचित्राणि सस्ऱ्जुः कपिना तदा || ५-१४-१४

Shaken vigorously by Hanuman of great speed, the trees shed their flowers of variegated colours.

निर्धूत पत्र शिखराः शीर्ण पुष्प फल द्रुमाः |निक्षिप्त वस्त्र आभरणा धूर्ता इव पराजिताः || ५-१४-१५

The tree tops, shorn of their leaves and flowers and fruits fallen, had to lay down their clothes and ornaments like one defeated deceitfully.
हनूमता वेगवता कम्पिताः ते नग उत्तमाः |पुष्प पर्ण फलानि आशु मुमुचुः पुष्प शालिनः || ५-१४-१६

Shaken by the swift Hanuman, even the big trees dropped flowers, fruits and leaves.

विहम्ग सम्घैर् हीनाः ते स्कन्ध मात्र आश्रया द्रुमाः |बभूवुर् अगमाः सर्वे मारुतेन इव निर्धुताः || ५-१४-१७

Deserted by the flocks of birds resting on them (flowers and leaves also dropped from branches), the trees were left bare with trunks unable to move.

विधूत केशी युवतिर् यथा मृदित वर्णिका |
निष्पीत शुभ दन्त ओष्ठी नखैर् दन्तैः च विक्षता || ५-१४-१८
तथा लान्गूल हस्तैः च चरणाभ्याम् च मर्दिता |
बभूव अशोक वनिका प्रभग्न वर पादपा || ५-१४-१९

The garden of Ashoka with trees shattered and crushed by Hanuman's penis, hands and feet, accordingly became in such a manner: a young woman with dishevelled hair, with her vermilion mark effaced, her bright teeth and lips faded for being kissed and wounded with nails and bitten with teeth (by her lover).

Sundara Kanda Section 14[28] 
Verse 5.14.14 says that due to Hanumana's rough manhandling of the symbolic trees (i.e. vigorously shaking them), they shed their flowers of various colors. Prior to this verse, flowers were also shed by these trees... However at that time, it was due to the wings of the birds hitting the trees when they attempted to flee away from the trees upon Hanumana's arrival. So, this was the first verse where Hanumana himself physically manhandles the symbolic trees... That being said, I would advise you to take note of the second verse (5.14.15) as well. That verse gives us the first solid hint that the trees were actually symbolic in nature. The verse suggests that the leaves/flowers and fruits on the trees are symbolic and represent clothes and ornaments (respectively). This in turn suggests that these "trees" wearing clothes and ornaments were in fact women, as women back in those days were known to decorate their bodies with clothes and jewelry more than men did. For example, when Rama, Seetha and Lakshmana went for exile, Seetha adorned herself with silk garments and jewelry, whereas the two brothers went to exile in bark garments and without jewelry... Taking all this into account, that verse suggests that Hanumana manhandled the women (i.e. symbolic trees), and stripped them of their clothes and ornaments (i.e. symbolic leaves/flowers and fruits) in a deceitful manner. Verse 5.14.16 then goes on to say that Hanumana managed to strip even the large women (i.e. trees) of their clothes (i.e. leaves/flowers) and jewelry (i.e. fruit).

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Verse 5.14.17 is a very interesting one! Its describes the pitiable state of the women (i.e. symbolic trees) by saying that after being deprived of their clothes (i.e. symbolic leaves/flowers) and jewelry (i.e. fruit), they were made fully naked (i.e. bare), and then manhandled such that they were unable to move... The verse also mentions that this pitiable state of the women (i.e. symbolic trees) was due to the flocks of birds that abandoned them. This suggests that the birds, when present, ensured that these women (i.e. symbolic trees) were protected and capable of movement. In other words, it suggests that these birds were symbolic and represented the protectors (i.e. Lord/husband) of the women. These protectors were likely their husbands, because as is common in Vedic texts, the husband/Lord of a woman was her protector for the most part. For example, consider verse 9.6 from Manusmriti:
Considering that the highest duty of all castes, even weak husbands (must) strive to guard their wives.
Manusmriti Chapter 9[30] 
One thing to note is that fathers and brothers are also protectors of women, according to Manusmriti... However, I have ruled out this possibility because the birds were intimately associated with the symbolic trees (i.e. women) according to verse 5.14.10 and were so close to them that they caused them to shower symbolic flowers when they fled from the vicinity. This sort of intimate relationship is not expected between women and their brothers or fathers. Instead, such an intimate relationship is more common between women and their lovers/husbands. This suggests that the birds symbolized the husbands of the women (i.e. symbolic trees).... Furthermore, in Sundara Kanda Section 16, there is a verse where (Chakravaka) birds are used to symbolize companions (i.e. husband-wife), in this case, Rama and Seetha:
हिमहतनलिनीव नष्टशोभा व्यसनपरम्परया निपीड्यमाना।सहचररहितेव चक्रवाकी जनकसुता कृपणां दशां प्रपन्ना।।5.16.30।।
"Deprived of her charm, she resembles a lotuscreeper blasted by frost. This daughter of Janaka has reached a pitiable condition afflicted by series of calamities. She resembles a female Chakravaka separated from her companion (husband Rama).
Sundara Kanda Section 16[31] 
This clearly shows that the poet intended to use birds to symbolize the companions (i.e. husbands) of the females in the Grove.

For those that are still unconvinced that these trees symbolically represent women, I would like to ask one question... The poet mentions in this verse that after these trees were manhandled and reduced to a bare tree trunk, their trunk was unable to move. This implies that prior to Hanumana attacking them, their trunk was capable of movement. Now which tree tree trunks are capable of movement? None, of course... Tree trunks are generally not capable of movement... This is yet another hint towards the fact that the trees that Hanumana saw, dashed towards, and then attacked symbolically represent living beings (in this case women, as I have earlier described). Their bare trunks symbolize the naked bodies of these women, stripped of all their clothes and ornaments... Verses 5.14.18-19 then suggest that after these women (i.e. symbolic trees) were stripped naked by Hanumana, they were crushed by his penis, hands and feet, therefore suggesting nothing less than rape happened to them. This is further reinforced by the latter part of those verses, which clearly mention that Hanumana crushed these women (i.e. symbolic trees) in such a manner that they became with disheveled hair, an effaced vermilion mark, and lips faded from Hanumana's kisses and wounded by his nails! Recall verse 5.14.17, where the poet mentions that when Hanumana attacked these women, before the actual rape, they were stripped of all their clothing and made naked like the trunk of a tree, shorn of all its leaves, flowers and fruits... In that same verse, it was also mentioned that upon this assault by Hanumana, they were unable to move... This just shows how intense and brutal the rape of these women, by Hanumana, was...

Now that I have described in depth all the symbolism that I intended to describe, I will refer back to the verses that I earlier posted, starting from the point where Hanumana enters the Ashoka Grove like a Naraacha arrow... As I promised earlier, I will now analyze these verses and separate symbolism from fact and show what these verses are actually stating:
मार्गमाणो वर आरोहाम् राज पुत्रीम् अनिन्दिताम् |
सुख प्रसुप्तान् विहगान् बोधयाम् आस वानरः || ५-१४-९

Hanuma searching the royal daughter Seetha with excellent limbs and without blame, woke up birds in comfortable sleep.

उत्पतद्भिर् द्विज गणैः पक्षैः सालाः समाहताः |अनेक वर्णा विविधा मुमुचुः पुष्प वृष्टयः || ५-१४-१०

Trees hit by wings of groups of birds in flight showered flowers of different colours.
पुष्प अवकीर्णः शुशुभे हनुमान् मारुत आत्मजः |
अशोक वनिका मध्ये यथा पुष्पमयो गिरिः || ५-१४-११

The son of Lord Vayu, Hanuma sprinkled with flowers shone like a mountain of flowers in the middle of Ashoka garden.

दिशः सर्व अभिदावन्तम् वृक्ष षण्ड गतम् कपिम् |
द्ऱ्ष्ट्वा सर्वाणि भूतानि वसन्त इति मेनिरे || ५-१४-१२

Seeing Hanuma running in all directions in the cluster of trees, all living creatures thought Him to be Vasanta, the lord of spring.

वृक्षेभ्यः पतितैः पुष्पैर् अवकीर्णा पृथग् विधैः |
रराज वसुधा तत्र प्रमदा इव विभूषिता || ५-१४-१३

Strewn with flowers of various colours fallen from the trees of various kinds, the goddess of earth looked charming like a young woman profusely bedecked.

Sundara Kanda Section 14[28] 
Verse 5.14.9 starts off by mentioning that Hanumana went in the grove, searching for Seetha, of "excellent limbs". The true motivating factor in the search for Seetha is made very clear by the poet... Given this sexual context, it should be no surprise that Hanumana raped some of the attractive females he saw in the Ashoka Grove, in his search for Seetha... Furthermore, verses 5.14.9-10 say that when Hanumana entered the grove, he woke up birds in these trees that were in a relaxed, inactive state of sleep. Upon waking up, these birds fled from the trees, and as they fled, their wings hit the trees and thereby caused variegated flowers to fall from the trees. As I mentioned above, these birds are symbolic and represent the husbands of these females (i.e. symbolic trees), whose duty was to protect these women (i.e. symbolic trees). Likewise, these symbolic trees represent women, and their symbolic flowers represent the garments they are wearing! That being said, verses 5.14.9-10 suggest that when Hanumana entered the grove, there were husbands (i.e.symbolic birds) resting very intimately with their wives (i.e. symbolic trees) in the grove. However, upon Hanumana's aggressive arrival into the grove (remember that he entered the grove aggressively, like a released Naraacha arrow?) these husbands woke up and fled in order to save their lives. The fact that these husbands (i.e. symbolic birds) were taken by surprise (by Hanumana's sudden attack on them) and forced to flee, led Valmiki to say later on in 5.14.15 that their wives (i.e. symbolic trees) were stripped of their clothes (i.e. symbolic flowers/leaves) and ornaments (i.e. symbolic fruits) via "deceit"! After all Hanumana, used deceit to chase away the men (i.e. symbolic birds) that were protecting their women (i.e. symbolic trees). He attacked them from behind, when they were least expecting an attack, thereby forcing them to flee...

As they fled away from the vicinity of their wives, they dropped some of the garments (i.e. symbolic flowers) of their wives (i.e. symbolic trees) that had clung to their bodies when they were relaxing very intimately with their wives (perhaps they had sex right before sleeping, hence some of their wives' garments were on their bodies?). Some of these dropped garments (i.e. symbolic flowers) fell on Hanumana, causing him to appear very colorful, like Spring personified (5.14.11). Then, Hanumana, covered by these many garments (i.e. symbolic flowers) ran very energetically in the vicinity of these women (i.e. symbolic trees) in order to chase off any of their husbands (i.e. symbolic birds) that may have remained (5.14.12). Some of the garments (i.e. symbolic flowers) dropped by the husbands (i.e. symbolic birds) when fleeing from the vicinity of their wives (i.e. symbolic trees) also fell on the surface of Earth and made it appear as a profusely bedecked woman (5.14.13)!

Once all the husbands (i.e. symbolic birds) had fled from the vicinity of their wives (i.e. symbolic trees), Hanumana then proceeded to manhandle the isolated women (i.e. symbolic trees) in the grove (5.14.14). His assault on these women (i.e. symbolic trees) deprived them of their clothes (i.e. symbolic leaves/flowers) and ornaments (i.e. symbolic fruit). Since this assault was done only after attacking their husbands (i.e. symbolic birds) when they were unprepared, the poet said that the women (i.e. symbolic trees) were stripped naked (by Hanumana) in a deceitful manner (5.14.15). All women (i.e. symbolic trees), regardless of size were stripped naked by Hanumana (5.14.16). When stripping these women (i.e. symbolic trees) naked, Hanumana exerted much violence on them, such that they were unable to move, let alone resist him anymore (5.14.17). Then, after that brutal assault, Hanumana kissed these vulnerable, naked females (i.e. symbolic tree trunks), and raped them with his penis. In intense sexual passion, he wounded their lips with his nails (5.14.18-19). This incident just shows how sexually aggressive Hanumana became after his confidence of being a brahmacharya was shattered. Once he realized he was an utter failure in controlling his senses, he ceased to further care about his senses, and in a quite literal manner, "let free the beast from within"...

After raping these females, Hanumana was satisfied momentarily, and proceeded on to search for Seetha. He saw some couples mating, and ignored them so that he could proceed on to find Seetha. Along the way, he saw many ponds as well as trees... Once he got very deep into the grove and in vicinity of one of the ponds, he decided to take refuge in one of the Simshupa trees. His logic was that he had a golden hue and so did the tree he was trying to hide in. This would allow him to camouflage and protect himself from being caught by the Rakshasa guards in the grove.... Hanumana thought that Seetha would come to the river to perform her evening (संध्या) religious rites, and that when she does so, he would see her there... When saying that, and looking all around for Seetha from the Simshupa tree, Hanumana fantasized about the beauty of Seetha:
संध्या काल मनाः श्यामा ध्रुवम् एष्यति जानकी |
नदीम् च इमाम् शिव जलाम् संध्या अर्थे वर वर्णिनी || ५-१४-४

Surely that lady of lovely complexion, the beautiful Janaki will come to this river flowing with sacred waters for performing the evening rituals.
यदि जिवति सा देवी तारा अधिप निभ आनना |
आगमिष्यति सा अवश्यम् इमाम् शिव जलाम् नदीम् || ५-१४-५१
"The moonfaced queen will certainly come to this stream of auspicious water if she is surviving."
Sundara Kanda Section 14[28] 
Sitting on the Simshupa tree, Hanumana looked around for Seetha. Not too far away from the Simshupa tree, Hanumana saw a magnificent, temple-like structure:
शैलेन्द्रमिव गन्धाढ्यं द्वितीयं गन्धमादनम्।अशोकवनिकायां तु तस्यां वानरपुङ्गवः।।5.15.15।।स ददर्शाविदूरस्थं चैत्यप्रासादमुच्छ्रितम्।मथ्ये स्तम्भसहस्रेण स्थितं कैलासपाण्डुरम्।।5.15.16।।प्रवालकृतसोपानं तप्तकाञ्चनवेदिकम्।मुष्णन्तमिव चक्षूंषि द्योतमानमिव श्रिया।।5.15.17।।विमलं प्रांशुभावत्वादुल्लिखन्तमिवाम्बरम्।
The vanara leader saw a lofty templelike structure in the midst of the Ashoka grove which was highly fragrant and appeared like another indescribable structure that stood on a thousand pillars like another Gandhamadana mountain. It gleamed white like mount Kailasa. Its stairs were paved with corals. The altars were made of brightly polished gold. This structure glowing with brilliance was as if stealing the eyes. It looked white with light and lofty as though scratching the sky.
Sundara Kanda Section 15[32] 
In this temple-like structure, he spotted a female of exquisite beauty surrounded by Rakshasii guards/protectors, and thought she was Seetha.

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Upon mentally debating on whether or not she is Seetha, Hanumana, awestruck by her supernatural beauty then starts mentally describing how beautiful she is, and reasons that since she is that beautiful, she must be Seetha... Remember that Hanumana had earlier also thought that Mandodari was Seetha, by simply seeing how beautiful she was? Well... He did the same here, again... The description of her beauty by Hanumana shows just how intense Hanumana's sexual attraction to Seetha's body was upon seeing her:
ह्रियमाणा तदा तेन रक्षसा कामरूपिणा।।5.15.27।।यथारूपा हि दृष्टा वै तथारूपेयमङ्गना।
Beholding the form of the largeeyed lady, Hanuman guessed, 'This is similar to the form seen while the demon was kidnapping her'.
पूर्णचन्द्राननां सुभ्रूं चारुवृत्तपयोधराम्।।5.15.28।।कुर्वतीं प्रभयादेवीं सर्वा वितिमिरा दिशः।तां नीलकेशीं बिम्बोष्ठीं सुमध्यां सुप्रतिष्ठिताम्।।5.15.29।।सीतां पद्मपलाशाक्षीं मन्मथस्य रतिं यथा।
Her face resembled the fullmoon which dispelled the encircling gloom by its radiance. She had a slender waist, beautiful round breasts, shapely eyebrows, red lips, dark hair, and eyes like lotus petals with attractive limbs. She was comparable to Rati, consort of Cupid.
अस्या देव्या यथा रूपमङ्गप्रत्यङ्गसौष्ठवम्।रामस्य च यथा रूपं तस्येयमसितेक्षणा।।5.15.51।।
"This blackeyed Sita and her divine, charming body with perfect limbs are a match for Rama's figure.
दुष्करं कुरुते रामो य इमां मत्तकाशिनीम्।सीतां विना महाबाहुर्मुहूर्तमपि जीवति।।5.15.54।।
"Rama, the strongarmed hero has accomplished a difficult task by surviving even for a moment without this Sita who has intoxicating lustre".

Sundara Kanda Section 15[32] 
As you all probably noticed from the aforementioned text, Hanumana was not disappointed upon seeing Seetha. Her actual form was not in any way inferior to how Hanumana fantasized her to be! He was, infact more than impressed by her beauty, and hence goes on to consciously show his intense kama towards Seetha in a very direct manner, as has been shown in the verses above...

Well, for one, these verses debunk the claims of many devotees of Hanumana and Seetha that the former figure looked upon the latter figure as a mother. Which son describes their mothers face, eyes, eyebrows, lips, hair, waist, breast, and other bodily limbs in the sexually-filled manner Hanumana had done above? Which son would then go on and tell his mother that she is like "Rati, the consort of Cupid", and that she has a "divine, charming body with perfect limbs"? Although I cannot speak on behalf of  all the devotees, I for sure can say that I would not describe my mother in such a manner... For those devotees that are still not convinced, note that Hanumana later gets filled with admiration for Rama as he had such a beautiful wife and then himself thinks that had such a beautiful woman been his wife, he would have sacrificed even the three worlds for her as they were worth less than 1/16 of her (according to Hanumana):
एवं सीतां तदा दृष्ट्वा हृष्टः पवनसम्भवः।जगाम मनसा रामं प्रशशंस च तं प्रभुम्।।5.15.55।।

On seeing Sita, the son of the Windgod, felt glad at heart and mentally reached Rama the lord of the world. Hanuman was full of praise for Rama.
तां दृष्ट्वा नवहेमाभां लोककान्तामिव श्रियम्।
जगाम मनसा रामं वचनं चेदमब्रवीत्।।5.16.6।।
On seeing her glowing like fresh gold resembling goddess Lakshmi who is dear to the entire world, and thinking of Rama, Hanuman said:
यदि रामः समुद्रान्तां मेदिनीं परिवर्तयेत्।
अस्याः कृते जगच्चापि युक्तमित्येव मे मतिः।।5.16.13।।
"Even if Rama turns this land stretching to the ocean upside down or even the entire world on account of her, it is justifiable, according to me.
राज्यं वा त्रिषु लोकेषु सीता वा जनकात्मजा।
त्रैलोक्यराज्यं सकलं सीताया नाप्नुयात्कलाम्।।5.16.14।।
"The sovereignty over the three worlds will weigh less than one sixteenth part of Janaka's daughter, Sita.
Sundara Kanda Sections 15-16[31] ,[32] 
As can be seen from the text above, after seeing the exquisite beauty of Seetha, Hanumana is full of admiration and praise of Rama for having such a beautiful wife. He then thinks of Rama and puts himself in Rama's shoes... Upon doing so, he thinks that had she, who is glowing like fresh gold and resembling goddess Lakshmi, been his wife, he would not have found it inappropriate to destroy the entire world for her, as the sovereignty of the three worlds is not even worth 1/16 of her... He clearly transgresses the boundaries of any "mother-son relationship" that the devotees may have perceived...

Well, to be honest, this is just the tip of the iceberg. Hanumana does much more to Seetha that many devotees may find hard to even imagine. Seetha, too, is not as innocent that many would presume her to be... It is therefore bound to be a heartache to ardent devotees of Hanumana and Seetha. So please read further at your discretion...

Hanumana's Interaction with Seetha

Upon seeing Seetha, Hanumana was immersed in an ocean of sexual passion for her. For example, consider this verse where Hanumana gets attracted to the beauty of Seetha's limbs and especially her eyes, which he calls intoxicating. Seeing this beauty, Hanumana has an erection of his male sex organ:
तां क्षमां सुविभक्ताङ्गी विनाभरणशोभिनीम्।।5.17.30।।प्रहर्षमतुलं लेभे मारुतिः प्रेक्ष्य मैथिलीम्।
She was a tolerant lady. Her beautiful limbs were such that they would shine even in the absence of ornaments. Hanuman experienced a great erection of his male sex organ on seeing Mythili.
हर्षजानि च सोऽश्रूणि तां दृष्ट्वा मदिरेक्षणाम्।मुमुचे हनुमांस्तत्र नमश्चक्रे च राघवम्।।5.17.31।।
Seeing that lady with intoxicating eyes, Hanuman shed tears of joy. At once he paid obeisance to Rama.
Sundara Kanda Section 17[33]
As Hanumana was aroused by Seetha's supernatural beauty, time flew by rapidly... The night had passed and the morning had arrived. Ravana had woken up and left the Pushpaka Vimana (i.e. his harem) along with his beautiful, chief wives, to go and see Seetha. Soon enough, Ravana had arrived in the Ashoka Grove in full pomp and pride, and seeing that, Hanumana was taken aback and hid himself completely, using the leaves of the Simshupa tree, to prevent being caught and captured by Ravana. From that position, he then gazed at the wives of Ravana, endowed with youth and beauty, that accompanied him to the Ashoka Grove. Seeing that Ravana was approaching her, Seetha covered her breasts and belly with her knees to give a behavioral cue to Ravana that she still was not willing to have him as her husband... Even despite seeing and noting this, Ravana tried to woo Seetha in various ways. He initially began to propose to her very nicely like a gentleman. However, Seetha did not respond in the same manner. Although her initial response was a nice refusal to Ravana's proposal, by the end of her speech, her words got much more harsh, attacking his manliness and ego. For example, she called Ravana much inferior to Rama, and likened Rama to a tiger and Ravana to a dog... She then abused Ravana in the choicest manner and ended her speech by telling him that if she is not returned to Rama, he will be crushed in war along with his army, just like how a single Garuda destroys an entire army of serpents. These harsh words hurt the pride of Ravana and got him angry.

However, he restrained his anger and instead of punishing her (by death) for her vile language, he started mocking her ascetic life in Lanka by calling it "pseudo-ascetic". Thereby, he essentially called the devotion she was showing towards her husband as a farce. Seeing this, Seetha blazed in anger and called him a "stupid person" and likened him to a rabbit eager to fight with an elephant (i.e. Rama). She also called him a coward for kidnapping her instead of fighting off Rama. Hearing these insults, Ravana got angry and told her that he will destroy her pride. He then ordered some Rakshasii guards to use persuasion/coercion, and reward/punishment to make Seetha accept him... After saying that, Ravana cheerfully returned back into his Pushpaka Vimana (i.e. harem), along with his other wives. Following Ravana's departure from the Ashoka Grove, the Rakshasii guards interacted with Seetha and tried to persuade her, very nicely, to accept Ravana. However, Seetha politely declined their request, and told her that they can eat her up if they wish, but she will not accept Ravana. Hearing this, some of the Rakshasiis continued to politely convince her, whereas other got angry, started to scold Seetha, and made (rather empty) threats to kill Seetha if she does not accept Ravana. However, Seetha knew the emptiness of their threats... She couldn't care less about their words, and for that reason adamantly refused to accept Ravana. Seeing that Seetha would not budge, these Rakshasiis then went to Ravana to report the news. They carried Ravana's message back and conveyed it to Seetha. Following this, all those Rakshasiis went to sleep in the Ashoka Grove.

Image result for sita lanka

Once all the Rakshasii guards were fast asleep in the Ashoka Grove, Seetha saw a man hiding in a distant Simshupa tree, whom she could not clearly identify. This was the exact same Simshupa tree that Hanumana was residing in! This evoked curiosity regarding the identity of the man on that tree, and for that reason she moved towards the Simshupa tree. Upon reaching the tree, she saw the body of the man (i.e. Hanumana) in front of her, and after fantasizing him to be her husband Rama (the tree leaves somewhat covered the body so the identity of the man was not clear), she displayed many physiological behaviors that suggest that she was sexually aroused:
उपस्थिता सा मृदुसर्वगात्री शाखां गृहत्वाऽध नगस्य तस्य।तस्यास्तु रामं प्रविचिन्तयन्त्या रामानुजं स्वं च कुलं शुभाङ्ग्या:।।5.28.19।।शेकानिमित्तानि तथा बहूनिधैर्यार्जितानि प्रवराणि लोके।प्रादुर्निमित्तानि तदा बभूवुः पुरापि सिद्धान्युपलक्षितानि।।5.28.20।।
Sita of delicate limbs approached the Simsupa tree and held on to a branch and stood. While she was thinking of Rama and Lakshmana and their noble family many omens of proven results appeared on her auspicious charming body. These omens were dispellers of grief, and harbingers of courage in the world as declared from ancient times. (Now) they manifested themselves.
तस्याः शुभं वाममरालपक्ष्म राजीवृतं कृष्णविशालशुक्लम्।प्रास्पन्दतैकं नयनं सुकेश्या मीनाहतं पद्ममिवाभिताम्रम्।।5.29.2।। 
Her left eye with a row of curved eyelashes, the black, large, and bright looking pupils of the eye throbbed in an auspicious manner. The lady with her long tresses, and throbbing eye appeared like a red lotus struck by a fish. 
भुजश्च चार्वञ्चितपीनवृत्तःपरार्थ्यकालागरुचन्दनार्हः।अनुत्तमेनाध्युषितः प्रियेण चिरेण वामः समवेपताऽशु।।5.29.3।।
Her stout left arm curved beautifully, fit for excellent agaru and sandal paste once the pillow by her beloved lord for long, throbbed suddenly.
गजेन्द्रहस्तप्रतिमश्च पीनस्तयोर्द्वयोः सम्हतयोः सुजातः।प्रस्पन्दमानः पुनरूरुरस्यारामं पुरस्तात् स्थितमाचचक्षे।।5.29.4।।
Again her roundshaped left thigh resembling an elephant's trunk started throbbing, indicated that Rama stood in front (of her).
शुभं पुनर्हेमसमानवर्ण मीषद्रजोध्वस्तमिवामलाक्ष्याः।वास स्स्थिताया श्शिखराग्रदन्त्याः किञ्चित्परिस्रंसत चारुगात्य्राः।।5.29.5।।
Her eyes were spotless, teeth wellshaped. The goldhued auspicious sari on her charming limbs was now a little soiled on account of dust. It slipped slightly as she was standing. This was auspicious (for her).
एतैर्निमित्तैरपरैश्च सुभ्रूः सम्बोधिता प्रागपि साधु सिद्धैः।वातातपक्लान्तमिव प्रणष्टं वर्षेण बीजं प्रतिसंजहर्ष।।5.29.6।।
Reassured by such omens which augured well as tested by time, Sita, with beautiful eyebrows, and deep foresight experienced great sexual excitement, like a seed blighted by the wind and the Sun comes back to joyful life through a pleasing shower. 
तस्याः पुनर्बिम्बफलाधरोष्ठंस्वक्षिभ्रुकेशान्तमरालपक्ष्म।वक्त्रं बभासे सितशुक्लदंष्ट्रंराहोर्मुखाच्चन्द्र इव प्रमुक्तः।।5.29.7।।
Her face shining with beautiful red lips like bimba fruit, sparkling teeth, and curved eyelashes with lovely brows extending up to her hair, she appeared like a Moon released from the mouth of Rahu.
Sundara Kanda Sections 28-29[34],[35]
In the above passage, many "auspicious bodily omens" are noted by the poet after Seetha reached the Simshupa tree. Below I have compiled a list of these omens with the verse number that describes them:

1. Left Eye Throbbing (5.29.2)
2. Left Eye Dilation (5.29.2)
2. Left Arm Throbbing (5.29.3)
3. Left Thigh Throbbing (5.29.4)

Thanks to research today, we know that during sexual arousal, the eyes of women throb and their pupils dilate. Likewise, research also shows that during sexual arousal of females, their inner thighs also throb[36]. This suggests that these auspicious bodily omens Seetha was showing were physiological responses to her sexual arousal. Verse 5.29.6 supports this as it explicitly says that Seetha experienced great sexual excitement.

Although it is an interesting fact that she felt "sexually aroused" after reaching the tree, that fact is essentially meaningless to the flow of events unless we know the "who" behind this... In other words, who specifically was Seetha sexually attracted to?

Most people would likely be urged to jump to a quick conclusion that she was sexually attracted to Hanumana. After all, verse 5.29.4 alludes that Seetha had experienced throbbing of her left thigh (and therefore felt "sexually aroused") when she was looking at the man in front of her, in the Simshupa tree. Since this man was Hanumana, Seetha definitely was sexually attracted to the body of Hanumana... However, a close analysis of the aforementioned passage reveals that this is only half the story... If we look at verses 5.28.19-20, we would notice that when Seetha reached the Simshupa tree, she was thinking of Rama and Lakshmana. This suggests that when looking at the man hiding in the tree, and attempting to discern his identity, she was fantasizing that either Rama or Lakshmana would be the one in the tree. She was fantasizing more about Rama being in the tree because when thinking about the name of the person who may have been hiding there, the first name that comes up, even prior to Lakshmana's name, is Rama! Even verse 5.29.4 mentions that when looking at the man in front of her, in the Simshupa tree, she fantasized he was Rama. Verses 5.28.19-20 clearly mention that while fantasizing about Rama being in the tree, Seetha experienced these "auspicious omens" of sexual arousal, thereby suggesting that this fantasization also played a role in her sexual arousal.

The poet later describes Seetha's teeth in detail (5.29.5,7), suggesting that she was smiling, thereby exposing her teeth. Likewise, her eyes were described as being spotless in verse 5.29.5, suggesting that her eyes were not filled with tears. This behavior shows that she felt very excited upon seeing the man in the Simshupa tree. After she realized her sexual excitement, she tried to use her body language to allure the human being on the tree (remember she thought he was Rama?) to leave the tree and approach her. Remember that verse 5.29.6 said that she had deep foresight? Indeed she did. She instantly realized the presence of a man on the Simshupa tree, and thought of using her body as an instrument to evoke kama towards her, in him, and thereby  "force" him to approach her. It is for that reason that she placed her arm on the branch of the Simshupa tree, in a rather "sexy", alluring pose.

Just imagine the position. She was wearing a garment covering her lower body only. Her upper body was not covered. On top of that she was holding a branch with her arm, thereby exposing her breasts and abdomen to the man who was hiding in the Simshupa tree. That pose was bound to get Hanumana, or Rama, or perhaps any other male, sexually attracted to her. Furthermore, while holding onto that branch, Seetha loosened the garment covering her lower body, causing it to slip off slightly (5.29. 5), thereby exposing her lower body to some extent. This would increase the sexual attraction towards her body, in the male observing her and would provoke him to approach the beautiful woman...  Even Valmiki, who was the poet recording the entire incident describes the beauty of Seetha in a kama filled manner, in verses 5.29.5-7. For example, he describes Seetha as having "spotless eyes", "well shaped, sparkling teeth", "beautiful eyebrows", "charming limbs", "beautiful red lips", and "curved eyelashes". Such a subjective, detailed description of Seetha's beauty suggests that Seetha's body language did not even spare the poor Valmiki... Well, we can't really blame him for that, can we? After all, Seetha was a woman with a rather unique kind of beauty!

In order to further allure Hanumana so that he would leave the Simshupa tree and approach her, she tried to evoke compassion in Hanumana for her, that would eventually urge him to step out of the tree and console the beautiful woman, full of grief (or so, as she wanted Hanumana to think)... So, she wept bitterly and projected herself as a pitiable woman immersed in an ocean of grief. She said aloud that she thought Rama had forgotten about her and is enjoying himself with other women, now that she was gone... She then went on to say aloud that all her faithfulness to her husband was futile, and that she would commit suicide as that was the only recourse, now that her husband had abandoned her. She then "pretended" to commit suicide by using her braid to strangle herself to death. The point was to induce as much sympathy as possible (in Hanumana), along with the feeling of kama, so that he would step out of the Simshupa tree to console her (Seetha) and tell her that Rama is still eager to free her from the clutches of Ravana:
कान्तारमध्ये विजने विसृष्टा बालेव कन्या विललाप सीता।।5.28.2।।
Seetha wept like a young girl deserted in a desolate forest.
सत्यं बतेदं प्रवदन्ति लोके नाकालमृत्युर्भवतीति सन्तः।यत्राहमेवं परिभर्त्स्यमानाजीवामि दीना क्षणमप्यपुण्या।।5.28.3।।
"Even though I am threatened like this, I am living pitiably because of lack of merit. Indeed I regret my survival due to my bad luck. Elders say that death will not occur before its time. It seems to be true.
सुखाद्विहीनं बहुदुःखपूर्णमिदं तु नूनं हृदयं स्थिरं मे।विशीर्यते यन्न सहस्रधाऽद्य वज्राहतं शृङ्गमिवाचलस्य।।5.28.4।।
"Even though I am devoid of joy, and living in deep agony, my heart bursts not into a thousand pieces like the summit of a mountain hit by thunderbolt (lightning).
नैवास्ति दोषो मम नूनमत्र वध्याहमस्याप्रियदर्शनस्य।भावं न चास्याहमनुप्रदातु मलं द्विजो मन्त्रमिवाद्विजाय।।5.28.5।।
"I will not be blamed if I commit suicide now. I stand condemned to death in the hands of this ugly Ravana. I cannot bestow my affection on him or surrender to his desire like a brahmin would not like to impart Vedic knowledge to a non-brahmin.
अनन्य दैवत्वमियं क्षमा चभूमौ च शय्या नियमश्च धर्मे।पतिव्रतात्वं विफलं ममेदंकृतं कृतघ्नेष्विव मानुषाणाम्।।5.28.12।।
"I am devoted to no god other than you (Rama). My hardship in sleeping on the ground, my righteousness, my discipline and devotion to husband have all proved futile like the devotion of an ungrateful person.
मोघो हि धर्मश्चरितो मयायंतथैकपत्नीत्वामिदं निरर्थम्।या त्वां न पश्यामि कृशा विवर्णा हीना त्वया सङ्गमने निराशा।।5.28.13।।
"This righteousness practiced by me is in vain like my devotion to you, as I am unable to see you. I am separated, emaciated, pale with no hope of sexual union as I am deprived by you. 
पितुर्निदेशं नियमेन कृत्वा वनान्निवृत्तश्चरितव्रतश्च।स्त्रीभिस्तु मन्ये विपुलेक्षणाभिस्त्वं रंस्यसे वीतभयः कृतार्थः।।5.28.14।।
"Having truly fulfilled your pledge given to your father, you will return from the forest to Ayodhya, rid of all fear, as an accomplished person, will and revel in the company of largeeyed damsels, I think.
अहं तु राम त्वयि जातकामा चिरं विनाशाय निबद्धभावा।मोघं चरित्वाथ तपो व्रतञ्च त्यक्ष्यामिधिग्जीवितमल्पभाग्याम्।।5.28.15।।
"O Rama I loved you and concentrated all my love on you for a long time only for my doom. I have observed vows and austerities in vain. I cannot continue it for long. Here I am giving up my life. Fie upon this luckless one (me).
सा जीवितं क्षिप्रमहं त्यजेयं विषेण शस्त्रेण शितेन वापि।विषस्य दाता न हि मेऽस्ति कश्चि च्छस्त्रस्य वा वेश्मनि राक्षसस्य।।5.28.16।।
"I will end my life at once by taking poison or else by a sharp weapon. Alas There is none to give me poison or a weapon at this demon's residence".
सा शोकतप्ता बहुधा विचिन्त्यसीताऽथ वेण्युद्ग्रथनं गृहीत्वा।उद्बुध्य वेण्युद्ग्रथनेन शीघ्रमहंगमिष्यामि यमस्य मूलम्।।5.28.18।।
"Burning in grief, worrying in many ways, Sita took hold of her braid and said", by tying myself with this braid I shall quickly reach the presence of the lord of death".
Sundara Kanda Section 28[34]
As some of you may have noted, there is much pretense in this speech of Seetha. For example, everything she said was said aloud, so that those in the area could hear her... A person in grief would usually keep the grief within, and therefore have all these thoughts in her mind, not aloud... She said aloud that Rama likely abandoned her for some other women... However, prior to this entire speech, when she was arguing with Ravana and the Rakshasii guards in the grove, she boasted much about how Rama would attack Lanka and destroy Ravana and save her... Where did all this faith in Rama and his love for her go? Furthermore, Rama was not exactly a womanizer. He remained satisfied with his wife Seetha, and she knew this (i.e. when arguing with Rama why he should not kill Rakshasas in the Dandaka Forest, she herself admits that he is not a womanizer and is satisfied with his wives - verses 3.9.4-6)... In addition, when she decides to commit suicide, she proclaims her plan (i.e. that she will commit suicide and her method of committing it) aloud so that others in the vicinity would hear it and react. This is not the behavior of one that seriously intends to end their life. Which suicide victim, intending to jump off a bridge, would proclaim aloud for the world to hear (right prior to jumping off the bridge) that they are contemplating suicide by jumping off the bridge? Furthermore, Seetha then goes to commit suicide by using her braid to strangle herself to death. I mean... who even tries to commit suicide by doing that? Quite hilarious... It is just not possible. The pain felt from the self-strangling of the neck would inhibit the person from exerting further pressure, thereby preventing the individual from effectively strangling themselves to death.

Although this "pretense" by Seetha did not allow for her death, it did allow for one thing...

This pretense effectively intensified compassion in Hanumana towards Seetha. As I have mentioned earlier in this post, research suggests that the initial compassion upon seeing a woman in tears and grief enhances the kama towards the woman, in the man[20] . This enhanced kama then intensifies the compassion felt for the woman, thereby urging the man to go and console  the woman... Same is the case here. The intensified compassion urged Hanumana to leave the tree he was inhabiting and go and console the beautiful waisted, moonfaced Seetha:
युक्तं तस्याप्रमेयस्य सर्वसत्त्वदयावतः।समाश्वासयितुं भार्यां पतिदर्शनकाङ्क्षिणीम्।।5.30.6।।
"It is the opportune time for me to comfort Sita eagerly waiting to see her husband who is of immeasurable prowess and who is compassionate to all beings.
अहमाश्वासयाम्येनां पूर्णचन्द्रनिभाननाम्।अदृष्टदुःखां दुःखार्तां दुःखस्यान्तमगच्छतीम्।।5.30.7।।
"The moonfaced Sita had never experienced sorrow before. She sees no end to her sorrow and suffering. I will console her. 
गते हि मयि तत्रेयं राजपुत्री यशस्विनी।परित्राणमविन्दन्ती जानकी जीवितं त्यजेत्।।5.30.9।।
"If I go back, this illustrious princess, Janaki will give up her life, finding no means of deliverance (from this tragic situation). 
अनेन रात्रिशेषेण यदि नाश्वास्यते मया।सर्वथा नास्ति सन्देहः परित्यक्ष्यति जीवितम्।।5.30.12।।
"If I do not comfort her before the remaining part of the night ends, she will give up her life. There is no doubt about it. 
रामश्च यदि पृच्छेन्मां किं मां सीताब्रवीद्वचः।किमहं तं प्रति ब्रूयामसंभाष्य सुमध्यमाम्।।5.30.13।।
"If Rama enquires about the message of Sita, this lady of beautiful waist, what can I speak without meeting and talking to her?
यदि चोद्योजयिष्यामि भर्तारं रामकारणात्।व्यर्थमागमनं तस्य ससैन्यस्य भविष्यति।।5.30.15।।
"If I get the lord of vanaras and his army for the cause of Rama (without talking to Sita), their arrival will be useless (if Sita would have given up her life by then). 
अन्तरं त्वहमासाद्य राक्षसीनामिह स्थितः।
शनैराश्वासयिष्यामि सन्तापबहुळामिमाम्।।5.30.16।।
"I shall wait and speak to her slowly and console this deeply distressed lady when I get a chance to speak to her. 
Sundara Kanda Section 30[37] 
Image result for hanuman sita
Note how Hanumana mentally addresses Seetha as "moonfaced" and a "lady of beautiful waist". We can already see the effects of Seetha using her body to allure Hanumana towards her... This kama urged Hanumana to step forward and console the beautiful woman immersed in sorrow and suffering and deeply distressed, on the verge of committing suicide (or so, as Hanumana thought)... Hanumana, unaware of the fact that Seetha used her body language to allure him, thought that if he stepped out at that moment and spoke in Sanskrit to her, she would be filled with fear thinking the person was Ravana in disguise (i.e. Ravana was one of the few people who spoke Sanskrit in Lanka and could change his form to that of a Vanara) and would yell aloud in this state of fear. This would wake up the sleeping Rakshasas, who would speedily capture him alive, Hanumana thought. To avoid this entire mess, Hanumana decided to remain hidden in the Simshupa tree and sing praises of Rama and the Ikshvakus in Sanskrit. He thought that praising Rama in such a manner while remaining hidden in the tree would not scare Seetha, but instead suggest to her that the person singing the praises is a wellwisher of Rama. After that, Seetha would not show any fear upon seeing his Vanara form when he would step out of the tree, Hanumana reasoned. Thinking thus, Hanumana started singing praises of Rama:
इति स बहुविधं महानुभावोजगतिपतेः प्रमदामवेक्षमाणः।मधुरमवितथं जगाद वाक्यं द्रुमविटपान्तरमास्थितो हनूमान्।।5.30.44।।
Highsouled Hanuman seated on the branch of the tree without being seen began to speak faithfully in praise of the lord of the universe in many ways while looking at that buxom, wanton woman. 
Sundara Kanda Section 30[37]
My purpose behind posting this verse is just to show you the kama-filled manner in which Hanumana was looking at Seetha when singing praises of Rama. As described by the poet, when gazing at her, he looked at her not as the wife of his master, but instead as a "buxom, wanton woman" (प्रमदा). Taking into consideration the behavioral cues given to him by Seetha, such as her hand on the Simshupa tree branch, exposing her breasts and flaunting her body, we can see from where Hanumana was getting this perception of her being a promiscuous woman... As a result, when looking at her, he saw her as one sees a "wanton woman", in a kama-filled manner. Furthermore, her lamenting  to Hanumana in verse 5.28.13 that she will not be able to have sexual union whatsoever, now that Rama had abandoned her, evoked kama-based karuna feelings in Hanumana, and made him feel that he should step up, to console her and subsequently satisfy the sexual desires of this "miserable, promiscuous woman" (or so, as he thought her to be from her words/behavior...)! We will see how his later actions towards Seetha are guided by these thoughts...

Moving back to Hanumana singing praises of Rama, while remaining hidden to not scare Seetha...

After Hanumana sang the praises of Rama and the Ikshvakus in Sanskrit, Seetha remained calm, and did not yell aloud... On the contrary, Seetha was filled with astonishment (विस्मयupon hearing Hanumana's words, and looked up and down (i.e. vertically) at the Simshupa tree to locate the exact position of Hanumana on the tree, via his voice:
विररामैवमुक्त्वासौ वाचं वानरपुङ्गवः।।5.31.16।।जानकी चापि तच्छ्रुत्वा परं विस्मयमागता।
Having spoken thus, the great vanara stopped speaking after that. Janaki was filled with astonishment by the words of the vanara.
ततस्सा वक्रकेशान्ता सुकेशी केशसंवृतम्।।5.31.17।।उन्नम्य वदनं भीरुश्शिंशुपावृक्षमैक्षत।
Then Sita looked up at the Simsupa tree timidly, her face covered with beautiful curly hair. 
सा तिर्यगूर्ध्वं च तथाप्यधस्तान्निरीक्षमाणा तमचिन्त्यबुद्धिम्।ददर्श पिङ्गाधिपतेरमात्यं वातात्मजं सूर्यमिवोदयस्थम्।।5.31.19।।

She looked obliquely, up, and down and saw Hanuman of unimaginable intelligence, the minister of the monkey lord, son of the Windgod, who looked like the rising Sun.
Sundara Kanda Section 31[38] 
The reason for Seetha showing "astonishment" should be evident! When Seetha was attempting to allure the man on the tree, she had fantasized that he was her husband Rama. However, this speech praising Rama made her realize that the person could not have possibly been Rama... Why would Rama praise himself when introducing himself to her? So, Seetha was astonished that the man hiding in the Simshupa tree was not Rama, but instead someone else. I will bring this topic back up in a subsequent paragraph, when relevant to the discussion...

If we read the above text carefully, we would notice that Seetha did not know the exact, detailed position of the man when he recited the praises of Rama in Sanskrit. However, she knew for sure that he was hiding in the Simshupa tree because when she looked to find the person who spoke the aformentioned praise of Rama, she looked straight up at the Simshupa tree. Her gaze did not wander all around the Ashoka Grove to find that person... One way to explain this is that when Seetha lamented (right after her sexual arousal), she would have likely removed her gaze off of the tree, and placed it towards the ground (or perhaps somewhere else, away from the tree), to prevent the man on the tree from thinking that she had detected him and was speaking to him specifically. Had she not done so, her entire plan would have been foiled as he would have detected that she was trying to manipulate him... Since Seetha's gaze was no longer on the tree when lamenting, we can absolutely see why she would have had to look back on the tree to locate him. The fact that she looked straight at the tree instead of looking all around for the voice suggests that she knew from all along that there was a man in the tree (as I mentioned earlier)...

After noting that Seetha did not yell in fear, Hanumana then stepped down from the Simshupa tree and asked her whether or not she was Seetha, in a very sweet voice, in order to confirm his thoughts and to strike a conversation with her. The way in which he asked her about her identity was filled with sexual passion:
सोऽवतीर्य द्रुमात्तस्माद्विद्रुमप्रतिमाननः।विनीतवेषः कृपणः प्रणिपत्योपसृत्य च।।5.33.1।।तामब्रवीन्महातेजा हनूमान्मारुतात्मजः।शिरस्यञ्जलिमाधाय सीतां मधुरया गिरा।।5.33.2।।
Hanuman, son of the Windgod whose face shone like coral, dressed in a sober manner climbed down the tree, went close to Sita, offered salutations with his palms on his head and spoke in sweet words:
का नु पद्मपलाशाक्षि क्लिष्टकौशेयवासिनि।द्रुमस्य शाखामालम्ब्य तिष्ठसि त्वमनिन्दिते।।5.33.3।।
"O blameless lady with eyes like lotus petals, in crumpled silk, holding a branch, and standing, who are you?
किमर्थम् तव नेत्राभ्यां वारि स्रवति शोकजम्।पुण्डरीकपलाशाभ्यां विप्रकीर्णमिवोदकम्।।5.33.4।।
"Why are tears of grief flowing from your eyes like water trickling down a pair of petals of white lotuses?
सुराणामसुराणां वा नागगन्धर्वरक्षसाम्।यक्षाणां किन्नराणां वा का त्वं भवसि शोभने।।5.33.5।।
"O noble lady, are you a goddess or a demoness, a naga, a gandharva, a rakshasa, a yaksha or a kinnera?
का त्वं भवसि रुद्राणां मरुतां वा वरानने।वसूनां हि वरारोहे देवता प्रतिभासि मे।।5.33.6।।
"O lovely faced lady Do you belong to the race of Rudras, or Marutas, or Vasus?. O lady with fine hips, you appear a goddess to me.
कि नु चन्द्रमसा हीना पतिता विबुधालयात्।रोहिणी ज्योतिषां श्रेष्ठा श्रेष्ठसर्वगुणान्विता।।5.33.7।।
"Are you Rohini, endowed with all the best qualities, fallen down from heaven, left behind by moon, the excellent one among stars?"
का त्वं भवसि कल्याणि त्वमनिन्दितलोचने।कोपाद्वा यदि वा मोहाद्भर्तारमसितेक्षणे।।5.33.8।।वसिष्ठं कोपयित्वा त्वं नासि कल्याण्यरुन्धती।
"O lady of lovely black eyes who are you? Have you by any chance offended your husband out of anger or out of delusion? Are you the auspicious Arundhati dislodged for making your lord Vasistha angry?
को नु पुत्रः पिता भ्राता भर्ता वा ते सुमध्यमे।।5.33.9।।अस्माल्लोकादमुं लोकं गतं त्वमनुशोचसि।
"O woman of beautiful waist from which world have you come here? For whom are you worrying? Who is your son, father, brother or husband? Are you worrying about some one dead?.
रोदनादतिनिश्श्वासाद्भूमिसंस्पर्शनादपि।।5.33.10।।न त्वां देवीमहं मन्ये राज्ञ स्सर्वज्ञावधारणात्।
"From your weeping, your sighing and your touching the earth (gods do not touch the earth) and your signs of sovereignty, I do not think you are a goddess (meaning otherwise she possessed divine grace)
व्यञ्जनानि च ते यानि लक्षणानि च लक्षये।।5.33.11।।महिषी भूमिपालस्य राजकन्या च मे मता।
"On the basis of your royal signs and other qualities I infer that you are the daughter of a king or his consort.
रावणेन जनस्थानाद्बलादपदहृता यदि।।5.33.12।।सीता त्वमसि भद्रं ते तन्ममाचक्ष्व पृच्छतः।
"If you are Sita, who was forcefully borne away by Ravana from Janasthana you may kindly reveal to me freely. May god bless you.
यथा हि तव वै दैन्यं रूपं चाप्यतिमानुषम्।।5.33.13।।तपसा चान्वितो वेषस्त्वं राममहिषी ध्रुवम्।
"Indeed your plight, the superhuman beauty and your robes marked with asceticism, surely tell me that you are Rama's queen."
Sundara Kanda Section 33[39]
This entire speech of Hanumana comes across as a man trying to seduce a female in grief, as opposed to trying to genuinely console her or ask her for her identity. We can clearly see how he was looking upon her as some "promiscuous woman", as opposed to the respected wife of his master, Rama...

For example, he used very sweet words in his speech (5.33.1-2). This reminds me of how Draupadi used sweet words to seduce her husband Bhima and urge him to kill Kichaka! Sweet words in a speech were often employed by characters in our Vedic texts, when seducing women/men... Hanumana then starts off by addressing Seetha as "a lady with eyes like lotus petals". He also specifically makes mention of her using her arm to hold onto the branch of the Simshupa tree (5.33.3), which was the behavior employed by Seetha to allure him towards her, as I have earlier mentioned... From this, we can clearly see Hanumana's sexual attraction towards her. He then mentions about her grief in verse 5.33.4, however, he does not forget to try to seduce her even then by likening her tears to water trickling down the petals of white lotuses... We see more of this seductive behavior in the subsequent verses as well. For example, he describes her in a kama-filled manner by likening her to Suras, Asura, Nagas, Yakshas, Kinnaras, Rakshasas, and Gandharvas, the tribes known for their supernatural beauty (5.33.5). This reminds me of how Kotika (i.e. Jayadratha's messenger sent to Draupadi prior to her kidnap) tried to seduce Draupadi by likening her beauty to that of the females of the aforementioned tribes... Hanumana then addresses Seetha as "a lady with fine hips" and asks her if she is a fragment of the moon personified on Earth as a human (5.33.6). Such references were an obvious attempt by Hanumana to woo the beautiful Seetha. How many of us men attempt to woo our partners when in a romantic mood by likening their beauty to that of the moon?... In addition to those references, Hanumana addresses Seetha as a lady of "lovely black eyes" (5.33.8), "beautiful waist" (5.33.9), and "superhuman beauty" (5.33.13). He also says that she seems like a goddess, not a human, by virtue of her divine beauty (5.33.10)...

Of course Seetha was no fool, and definitely would have realized that Hanumana was sexually attracted to her, and trying to allure her. However, she was not angry upon hearing these kama-charged words. Instead, she was very delighted (हर्षिता) upon hearing Hanumana's speech. This joy upon hearing of Hanumana's lustful speech suggests that she also was also interested in him, to some extent. In other words, some of her initial attraction to him (when he was hiding in the Simshupa tree) was based purely on his beauty, not just her fantasization of him being Rama. However, her fantasization that the man hiding in the tree was Rama gave her reasons to justify this infidelity (i.e. sexual attraction to Hanumana). It allowed her to feel sexually attracted to Hanumana, and then use this fantasization of Hanumana being Rama as an excuse to justify that the sexual attraction was legitimate, as it was directed towards her husband... That also explains why the word "विस्मय" was used in verse 5.31.16 to describe Seetha's reaction upon realizing that it was not Rama hiding behind the Simshupa tree, but instead another man. विस्मय is a sanskrit word that refers to "astonishment/wonder/amazement"... So, Seetha was astonished, but in a rather pleasant way, that Rama was not behind the Simshupa tree...

She then went on to tell Hanumana that she is indeed Seetha, the wife of Rama, and then described her life with Rama (ever since her marriage) in brief. Hearing this speech and seeing her plight in the Ashoka Grove, Hanumana was sad, and to comfort her, told her that he is a messenger sent by Rama and that all is well with Rama and Lakshmana... Hearing of this news, Seetha got a solid confirmation that her political plan for the destruction of Ravana would not be interrupted, and hence all her limbs were described as being thrilled with delight. She would later try to manipulate Rama, (via her message to him through Hanumana) and urge him to rush his attack on Lanka and exert his 110% in the war!

I will talk about this in more detail, perhaps in some other post, since this post deals with Hanumana's sexuality in Lanka, instead of Seetha's role in manipulating Hanumana and Rama for political purposes...

After Seetha's limbs were thrilled with delight, she started to interact with Hanumana very freely. Through the interaction, Hanumana brought wonderful pleasure (प्रीति) in the mind of Seetha... Before long, Hanumana felt very strongly that Seetha was interested in him, from her body language, and therefore moved closer and closer towards that lady who was crying piteously (remember when I earlier said that research suggests that tears in a female intensifies kama in a male?[20]) and continued to interact:
तया समागते तस्मिन्प्रीतिरुत्पादिताऽद्भुता।परस्परेण चालापं विश्वस्तौ तौ प्रचक्रतुः।।5.34.7।।
Hanuman thus created a sense of wonderful pleasure in her as they came together. Both of them started to converse restoring confidence in each other.
तस्यास्तद्वचनं श्रुत्वा हनुमान्हरियूथपः।सीतायाश्शोकदीनायास्समीपमुपचक्रमे।।5.34.8।।
Hearing the reply of Sita, who was crying piteously, stricken with grief, the monkey leader, Hanuman moved close to her.
Sundara Kanda Section 34[40]
However, things unfortunately did not flow too smoothly for Hanumana... Seetha, who was no novice when it came to knowledge of kama, quickly detected Hanumana's sexual desire, and momentarily backed off semi-angrily, telling him that she thinks he is Ravana in the guise of a Vanara (due to the infatuation he showed towards her). However, as I will show in the subsequent paragraphs, the reason why Seetha refused Hanumana at that moment was not that she actually thought he was Ravana. Instead, it was so that she did not want to show Hanumana that she directly and shamelessly felt sexually attracted to him. Instead, she wanted Hanumana to believe that she was pining for sexual union with Rama and that when she would later have sex with him (Hanumana), it would be only when thinking of Rama alone in her mind... This ensured that Hanumana would still address Seetha as a lady devoted to Rama when he would return back to Kishkindha:
यथा यथा समीपं स हनुमानुपसर्पति।तथा तथा रावणं सा तं सीता परिशङ्कते।।5.34.9।।
As Hanuman started slowly drawing close, Sita suspected he might be Ravana.
अहो धिग्दुष्कृतमिदं कथितं हि यदस्य मे।रूपान्तरमुपागम्य स एवायं हि रावणः।।5.34.10।।
"Oh shame on me. I have told him my story which should not have been said. This is verily Ravana come in a disguise".
तामशोकस्य शाखां सा विमुक्त्वा शोककर्शिता।तस्यामेवानवद्याङ्गी धरण्यां समुपाविशत्।।5.34.11।।
So saying Sita of flawless limbs, emaciated with grief, left the branch of Ashoka tree held by her and squatted on the ground.
Sundara Kanda Section 34[40]
Ardent devotees of Seetha, please forgive me for the language I am about to use right now, but from Seetha's behavior, she was essentially cockteasing Hanumana. She first flaunted her body and attempted to seduce Hanumana by placing her arm on the tree branch, thereby uncovering her upper body and exposing her large breasts. She kept her hand on the branch for a very long time, all the way from her initial lamenting in Sundara Kanda Section 28 to her interaction with Hanumana in Sundara Kanda Section 33 and subsequent rejection of him in Sundara Kanda Section 34. It is very clear that she intended to seduce Hanumana till he would approach her for sex... When Hanumana approached her and started interacting with her in a close manner, she responded very pleasantly and displayed an increased amount of trust and friendliness in him, thereby giving him behavioral cues that she was interested him. Then, when Hanumana made the next step and went more and more physically intimate with her, she denied sex. She then stopped seducing him by leaving the branch, and squatted to the ground, thereby abandoning her rather "sexy pose"... Essentially, she increased Hanumana's sexual arousal to its peak, and then, very cruelly, denied him sex. The reason for this, as I mentioned in the previous paragraph, was so that Hanumana would be fooled into believing that she did not feel sexual attraction towards him and that she was completely loyal towards her husband, Rama.

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Seeing Seetha's refusal to have sex with him, Hanumana realized that he misjudged her when he thought of her as a "promiscuous woman", and hence instantly prostrated to her. The subsequent behavior of Seetha is very fascinating for any reader to observe, as it reveals the complexity of her character... Upon seeing that Hanumana was prostrating to her, the upset/angry Seetha sighed, and then rebuked Hanumana for approaching her as Ravana in disguise of a Vanara. She rebuked him with the following words:
तं दृष्ट्वा वन्दमानं तु सीता शशिनिभानना।।5.34.13।।अब्रवीद्धीर्घमुच्छवस्य वानरं मधुरस्वरा।
On seeing the vanara prostrated, the moonfaced lady, sighed deeply and spoke to him in a sweet voice:
मायां प्रविष्टो मायावी यदि त्वं रावणस्स्वयम्।।5.34.14।।उत्पादयसि मे भूयस्सन्तापं तन्न शोभनम्।

"If you are that trickster Ravana who appears incognito before me, it is not good for you. You are causing grief again.

स्वं परित्यज्य रूपं यः परिव्राजकरूपध्रुत्।जनस्थाने मया दृष्टस्त्वं स एवासि रावणः।।5.34.15।।

"You are the same Ravana who took the guise of a mendicant, giving up your real form and came to Janasthana.

उपवासकृशां दीनां कामरूप निशाचर।सन्तापयसि मां भूयस्सन्तप्तां तन्न शोभनम्।।5.34.16।।

"Oh you are one who can assume any form at will. You are a nightstalker. It is not good for you to cause pain to me who is already emaciated through fasting, who is pitiable and who is already afflicted.
Sundara Kanda Section 34[40]
If we read the above text very carefully, it should be evident that this "rebuking of Hanumana" by Seetha was nothing more than a farce to make Hanumana believe that she was completely loyal to Rama and that she was not sexually attracted to Hanumana.

Why do I say so?

Well, lets take a look at some other times in Valmiki Ramayana when Seetha was very angry/upset... For example, when Ravana proposed to Seetha in marriage and showed his lust for her body, she got very angry and abused Ravana in the most vile manner in Aranya Kanda Sections 47-48. She was described as having "red bloodshot eyes", thereby symbolizing her extreme rage, and then used very harsh words towards Ravana. For example, a few such sentences spoken by her were "You are a jackal, and you want a lioness like me who is difficult to win. I am like the Sun's radiance whom you cannot even touch. O luckless Ravana you want the beloved wife of Rama. You will, for sure, see golden trees. (which those close to death do). You are seeking to pull the teeth from the mouth of a hungry and powerful lion who is considered the enemy of the deer (which you are). You intend to pull the fang of a poisonous snake. You are trying to carry the greatest of mountains, the Mandara, with one hand. You are wishing to go safe after drinking deadly poison (produced from the churning of the ocean). You wish to violate the loving wife of Rama. You are rubbing your eyes with a needle and licking the razor with your tongue". As you can see from the above text, when Seetha gets angry, she leaves no stone unturned in abusing the other person. She abuses Ravana in a similar manner in Aranya Kanda Sections 53 and 56, and Sundara Kanda Sections 21-22. Let alone Ravana, when angry, she did not even spare her devoted brother-in-law, Lakshmana, and abused him in an equally vile manner in Aranya Kanda Section 45. For those that are shocked by this, I would suggest to first read the aforementioned sections... By far, she is one of the most abusive characters in the entire epic! Keeping this in mind, if we read the above passage where Seetha was apparently "rebuking Hanumana" for lusting after her, we would see a big mismatch. Her "sighing" in verse 5.34.13  suggests that she was quite relaxed when making the speech. Furthermore, her speech was described by the poet as being "sweet". Since when was she so nice to Ravana that she would converse to him using sweet-sounding speech, and that too, when she was angry/upset at him? Does it seem from this behavior of hers that she was actually angry, or perhaps does it suggest that she was "pretending" to be upset to Hanumana so that he would attempt to gratify/console her? The latter option seems like the more plausible option considering Seetha's usual behavior when she was angry/upset throughout the epic.

Furthermore, in verses 5.34.14 and 5.34.16, Seetha tells Hanumana that him approaching her as Ravana in disguise of a Vanara is "causing grief again" to her. She even goes on to tell him "It is not good for you to cause pain to me who is already emaciated through fasting, who is pitiable and who is already afflicted". This does not seem like the behavior of one who is genuinely in grief, and definitely not the behavior of Seetha when in grief throughout the epic. When one is in grief, the individual would tend to internalize the pain or perhaps share it with a loved one, but definitely not with the person that is oppressing them... Furthermore, throughout the passages in Valmiki Ramayana where Seetha was in grief, she was shown to internalize her pain instead of begging for the perpetrator of the grief to spare her! Does she ever beg Ravana to spare her?


It is always her internalizing her pain, and then becoming bold and courageous and powerfully lashing out at him for his acts... This suggests that these words spoken by Seetha were not a reflection of the internal grief she was feeling. Instead, from these words we see her desperate attempt to portray herself as a "weak, helpless, victim devoted to none other than Rama". For this reason, those aformentioned words were spoken with the intention of evoking sympathy for her in Hanumana, and letting Hanumana know that she was solely devoted to Rama, and therefore not sexually attracted to him (Hanumana)... After saying those words, Seetha then went on to tell Hanumana that if he was not Ravana, then he should sing praises of Rama, as she loved hearing of Hanumana's praise of Rama:
अथवा नैतदेवं हि यन्मया परिशङ्कितम्।।5.34.17।।
मनसो हि मम प्रीतिरुत्पन्ना तव दर्शनात्।

"May be my suspicion is not correct Because I am experiencing pleasure in my mind in your presence.

यदि रामस्य दूतस्त्वमागतो भद्रमस्तु ते।।5.34.18।।
पृच्छामि त्वां हरिश्रेष्ठ प्रिया रामकथा हि मे।

"O great vanara, If on the other hand you have come here as Rama's messenger I wish you well. I love Rama's story. Tell me.

गुणान्रामस्य कथय प्रियस्य मम वानर।।5.34.19।।
चित्तं हरसि मे सौम्य नदीकूलं यथा रयः।

"O vanara Rama's virtues are dear to me to hear. O gentle one just as the current of the river wears away its banks, my mind is lured by your presence.

अहो स्वप्नस्य सुखता याहमेवं चिराहृता।।5.34.20।।
प्रेषितं नाम पश्यामि राघवेण वनौकसम्।

"Oh I have been seeing the person sent by Rama in my dream for a long time. This is a pleasant dream to me.

स्वप्नेऽपि यद्यहं वीरं राघवं सहलक्ष्मणम्।।5.34.21।।
पश्येयं नावसीदेयं स्वप्नोऽपि मम मत्सरी।

"Even if I can see the heroic Rama together with Lakshmana in my dream my pain will be gone. Even the dream is inimical to me (I cannot sleep and thus cannot dream.)

नाहं स्वप्नमिमं मन्ये स्वप्ने दृष्ट्वा हि वानरम्।।5.34.22।।
न शक्योऽभ्युदयः प्राप्तुं प्राप्तश्चाभ्युदयो मम।

"I do not think it is a dream. Pleasure cannot be experienced by seeing a vanara in a dream. I experience pleasure now.

किन्नु स्याचित्तमोहोऽयं भवेद्वातगतिस्त्वियम्।।5.34.23।।
उन्मादजो विकारो वा स्यादियं मृगतृष्णिका।

"Can this be a delusion of my mind or a mental imbalance (resulting in movement of the mind in the body). Is it a malady born of my madness? Or is it a mirage?

अथवा नायमुन्मादो मोहोऽप्युन्मादलक्षणः।।5.34.24।।
सम्बुध्ये चाहमात्मानमियं चापि वनौकसम्।

"No, this cannot be insanity. nor even delusion. But I recognize this vanara well"
Sundara Kanda Section 34[40] 
As we can see from the above passage, after garnering some sympathy from Hanumana and convincing him that she was loyal to Rama, Seetha then asks him to describe and praise Rama if he was actually Rama's messenger. From this passage, it should be evident that Seetha did not really think that Hanumana was Ravana. Why would she tell Ravana that she would trust him to be Rama's messenger if he sang Rama's praises? Anybody that knew a little bit about Rama would be able to sing the praises she was asking... This speech seems to, however, give the feeling that she wanted to hear more and more about Rama to satisfy her inner self...

Seetha starts off this speech by telling Hanumana that since she was feeling pleasure in her mind in his presence, her judgement of him being Ravana's messenger may have been incorrect (5.34.17). She then goes on to clarify that the pleasure she felt in his presence was not due to any form of attraction towards him, but instead due to the fact that he was narrating the stories of Rama, which she really loved. She then asks him to narrate more about Rama if he was indeed Rama's messenger (5.34.18-19). Seetha then goes on to describe to Hanumana how she was pining to hear about Rama and Lakshmana and that even hearing about the two brothers in her dreams would alleviate her pain (5.34.21). These words would have hinted to Hanumana how desperate Seetha was to hear about Rama and Lakshmana; mainly Rama though, as the earlier verses spoken by her placed more of an emphasis on Rama, as opposed to Lakshmana... After saying that, Seetha said she wonders if she was daydreaming about Rama's messenger (5.34.20, 22) or if she was becoming delusional in her madness about Rama (5.34.23-24), thereby showing Hanumana that she was in extreme pain due to her separation from Rama. This served to tell the mighty Vanara that she was solely devoted to Rama and was pining for him alone, which would in turn garner some compassion and respect towards her in Hanumana's mind.

Hanumana, after hearing all these words of Seetha, was not upset at her refusal to his advances as he realized that she was not attracted to him, but instead was attracted to and pining for Rama alone. The respect and compassion he had for her increased... For this reason, Hanumana reinterpreted Seetha's lamenting about "lack of sexual union" in verse 5.28.13 to mean that she was pining for sexual union with Rama specifically, instead of just with anyone. He no longer saw her as a sexually promiscuous woman. He saw her as a woman whose sexuality was solely directed towards Rama. As a result, Hanumana understood her desire to hear about the praises of Rama's sexuality. So, he then described Rama's sexuality to her, thereby giving great sexual excitement to her:
सीतायाश्चिन्तितं बुद्ध्वा हनुमान्मारुतात्मजः।।5.34.27।।
श्रोत्रानुकूलैर्वचनैस्तदा तां संप्रहर्षयत्।

Hanuman, son of the Windgod understood what was going on in Sita's mind and spoke pleasing words that brought sexual excitement in her.

आदित्य इव तेजस्वी लोककान्तश्शशी यथा।।5.34.28।।
राजा सर्वस्य लोकस्य देवो वैश्रवणो यथा।
विक्रमेणोपपन्नश्च यथा विष्णुर्महायशाः।।5.34.29।।

"Rama is glorious as the Sun, loved by the whole world like the Moon, is the king of all the worlds like Vaisravana, and renowned like Visnu endowed with valour.

सत्यवादी मधुरवाग्देवो वाचस्पतिर्यथा।
रूपवान्सुभग श्रीमान् कन्दर्प इव मूर्तिमान्।।5.34.30।।

"He is truthful in speech like Brihaspati, sweettongued, prosperous, handsome, charming as if Kamadeva (cupid) personified.
Sundara Kanda Section 34[40] 
As we can see from the text above, Hanumana understood what was going on in Seetha's mind. He realized that she was pining solely for Rama, in a sexual manner. Hence, he spoke in a way that brought sexual excitement in her. He described the various qualities of Rama and placed emphasis on his beauty, by describing him as "handsome and charming as if Kamadeva (cupid) personified". After speaking in this manner, he then went on to console Seetha that Rama would soon arrive in Lanka with the Vanara army and kill Ravana and rescue her. However, Seetha was not satisfied with that short description of Rama's sexuality.

She wanted more...

So she then asked Hanumana to describe Rama and Lakshmana's beauty and form, placing more emphasis on the penis, arms, and thighs, the body parts of a male that sexually appeal to females. Her reason to convince Hanumana to describe those body parts was so was so that "grief would not enter her mind again":
यानि रामस्य लिङ्गानि लक्ष्मणस्य च वानर।
तानि भूयस्समाचक्ष्व न मां शोकस्समाविशेत्।।5.35.3।।

"O vanara tell me all about the phallus of Rama and Lakshmana so that grief does not enter my mind agin.

कीदृशं तस्य संस्थानं रूपं रामस्य कीदृशम्।
कथमूरू कथं बाहू लक्ष्मणस्य च शंस मे।।5.35.4।।

"Of what kind was the beauty and form of Rama? And Lakshmana? How were the thighs, arms? Tell me".
 Sundara Kanda Section 35[42] 
Hanumana, however, saw through this (poor) excuse of Seetha and realized that she wanted to feel (sexual) pleasure from hearing of the appearance of Rama's body limbs, and hence said:
जानन्ती बत दिष्ट्या मां वैदेहि परिपृच्छसि।
भर्तुः कमलपत्त्राक्षि संस्थानं लक्ष्मणस्य च।।5.35.6।।

"O Seetha having eyes resembling lotus leaves! By my fortune, you are enquiring about the appearance of Rama your husband and Lakshmana, eventhough you know about them. Alas! what a pleasure!"
Sundara Kanda Section 35[42] 
In the above verse, Hanumana's main focus was upon Rama, not Lakshmana. He essentially says "you are enquiring about the appearance of Rama your husband, even though you know about him", and then adds in "लक्ष्मणस्य च" (meaning "also Lakshmana") at the end of the second line of that verse. So, from looking at the Sanskrit, it should be clear that Hanumana interpreted Seetha's request as asking him to describe Rama. Hanumana did not feel that a description of Lakshmana's physical appearance was a priority for her, and hence just adds in Lakshmana's name in that verse at the last moment. The reason for this was that he was convinced by Seetha's earlier words that her devotion was directed solely towards Rama, and hence felt that she would be more interested in hearing about the sexuality of Rama... Also, take note of the fact that Hanumana addresses Seetha as "a lady having eyes resembling lotus leaves". This suggests that despite being convinced that Seetha was solely devoted to Rama, he was still sexually attracted to her body. After all, it is not that easy for an individual to eliminate sexual attraction once it is well established! This behavior of Hanumana will shape the subsequent events, so please do take notice of such small cues in Hanumana's speech...

After saying these words, Hanumana went on to describe the qualities and physical appearance of Rama in much detail. He described all the body parts of Rama and did not even forget to mention the shape, size, and texture of Rama's penis, which Seetha wanted to derive sexual pleasure from thinking of. Below, I am posting the entire physical description, given by Hanumana, with some important phrases bolded. Take note of how Hanumana places more emphasis on the parts of the body that are sexually appealing to females (i.e. chest, arms, shoulders, thighs, testicles, penis, etc...):
रामः कमलपत्त्राक्ष स्सर्वसत्त्वमनोहरः।
रूपदाक्षिण्यसम्पन्नः प्रसूतो जनकात्मजे।।5.35.8।।

"O daughter of Janaka Rama with eyes like lotus petals is a person born with a delightful form, richly endowed with indescribable charm and politeness.

विपुलांसो महाबाहुः कम्बुग्रीवश्शुभाननः।
गूढजत्रुस्सुताम्राक्षो रामो देवि जनै श्श्रुतः।।5.35.15।।
"O godlike lady Rama has broad shoulders, strong arms, conchshaped neck and an auspicious countenance. With his fleshy round arms and copperyred eyes, he is renowned in all the worlds.

दुन्दुभिस्वननिर्घोष स्स्निग्धवर्णः प्रतापवान्।
सम स्समविभक्ताङ्गो वर्णं श्यामं समाश्रितः।।5.35.16।।

"His tone is resonant like drums, he has a beautiful, dark, shining complexion. He has symmetrical, well proportioned limbs. He is neither too tall nor too short.

त्रिस्थिरस्त्रिप्रलम्बश्च त्रिसमस्त्रिषु चोन्नतः।
त्रिताम्रस्त्रिषु च स्निग्धो गम्भीरस्त्रिषु नित्यशः।।5.35.17।।

"He has three stiff parts (chest, fist and wrists), three long parts (arms, eyebrows and scrotum), three even parts (locks of hair, knees and testicles), three elevated parts (abdomen, navel and chest), three coppery parts (soles, nails and eyes), three soft parts (the lines on the soles, hair, and end of the penis), and is always deep in three (voice, gait, and navel)

चतुष्कलश्चतुर्लेखश्चतुष्किष्कुश्चतु स्समः।।5.35.18।।
"He has three folds in the skin of his neck and belly. He is depressed at three places (the middle of his soles, the lines on his soles and the nipples). He is undersized at four places (the neck, penis, the back and the shanks). He is endowed with three spirals in the hair of his head. He has four lines at the root of his thumb (denoting his proficiency in the four Vedas). He has four lines on his forehead (indicating longevity). He is four cubits high. He has four pairs of limbs (the cheeks, arms, shanks and knees) equally matched."
महोष्ठहनुनासश्च पञ्चस्निग्धोऽष्टवंशवान्।।5.35.19।।

"He is a person with his pairs of eyebrows, nostrils, eyes, ears, lips, nipples, elbows, wrists, knees, testicles, loins, arms, legs and buttocks in good symmetry he has four sharp teeth. He walks in different gaits like a lion, leopard, elephant and bull as occasion demands. He has sharp nose, charming lips and jaws. He has smooth hair, eyes, skin, teeth and feet and his eight parts of his body (back, trunk, limbs, fingers, toes, eyes and testicles) are long.

दशपद्मो दशबृहत्त्रिभिर्व्याप्तो द्विशुक्लवान्।
षडुन्नतो नवतनुस्त्रिभिर्व्याप्नोति राघवः।।5.35.20।।

"Ten limbs of the body resemble lotuses (eyes, face, mouth, tongue, lips, cheeks, nipples, nails, feet and hands). He has ten well proportionate limbs (head, forehead, ears, neck, chest, heart, belly, hands, legs, buttocks). He is well known by the virtue of his splendour, fame and glory. Both his teeth and eyes are fair. Six parts of his body are elevated (nose, shoulders, forehead, chest and arm pits), nine parts of his body are fine and thin (moustache, nails, knuckles, beard, skin, hair, penis, acumen, perception). He pursues spiritual merit, worldly comfort and sensual delight in three periods of the day (forenoon, midday and afternoon). He always adopts the righteous way of life.
भ्राता तस्य च द्वैमात्रस्सौमित्रिरपराजितः।
अनुरागेण रूपेण गुणैश्चैव तथाविधः।।5.35.22।।

"His invincible brother Saumitri born of a different mother is a replica of Rama in affection, charm and virtues.
Sundara Kanda Section 35[42] 
As you can see from the above passage, Hanumana describes every aspect of Rama's body in extensive detail. As I have shown in bold, he places emphasis on the parts of his body that Seetha (or any female for that matter) would find sexually attractive, such as the shoulders, arms, chest, thighs, nipples, penis, and testicles. He even describes those parts in much detail. For example, he describes Rama's penis as being "undersized, fine, thin, and soft"! Also take note of the fact that Hanumana's description was focused mainly on Rama, despite the fact that Seetha asked for the physical appearance of Lakshmana as well. All he mentions about Lakshmana was that "Saumitri is a replica of Rama in affection, charm, and virtues". The reason why he did not elaborate on the description of Hanumana was because he was convinced by Seetha's earlier words that her devotion was directed solely towards Rama. Hence, he felt that her interest lied mainly in hearing about the sexuality of Rama, not Lakshmana...

But we cannot say that Seetha felt the same way... I will elaborate more on the dynamics of this Seetha-Lakshmana relationship in a future post, as this post is not the appropriate place to talk on that topic at length!

After describing Rama's beauty in such a manner to satisfy Seetha's sexual desires, Hanumana then describes how Rama and Lakshmana came in contact with the Vanaras, formed an alliance with them, and how Sugriva ordered the Vanaras to search for Seetha. Hearing everything Hanumana had just said, Seetha was filled with immeasurable sexual excitement (हर्षं ) and shed tears of joy out of this sexual excitement (प्रहर्षेण):
अतुलं च गता हर्षं प्रहर्षेण च जानकी।
नेत्राभ्यां वक्रपक्ष्माभ्यां मुमोचानन्दजं जलम्।।5.35.85।।

Janaki experienced immeasurable sexual excitement and in her sexual excitement shed tears of joy through her curved eyelashes, from both eyes.
Sundara Kanda Section 35[42] 
Then, Hanumana gave Seetha the ring with Rama's name inscribed on it, that Rama asked Hanumana to deliver to Seetha upon finding her. In Hindu scriptures, jewelry has great significance. As Wendy Doniger has talked about in her latest book titled "The Ring of Truth: And Other Myths of Sex and Jewelry", in Hindu texts, jewelry, and to be more specific, rings, have served as symbolism for sex and sexuality. For example, how can we forget how Kalidasa uses the ring of Shakuntala to serve as evidence for her sexual relationship with Dushyanta? Furthermore, in Valmiki Ramayana, when Seetha was kidnapped and Ravana started to have sex with her, Valmiki pays close attention to her jewelry (Aranya Kanda Section 52), as if there was a link between the two. He describes the jewelry between Seetha's breasts and on her feet as falling off of her person, due to the colliding of the two bodies in sexual intercourse. This suggests a close association, intended by the poet, between jewelry and sex. Furthermore, to hint to Rama about her kidnap, Seetha throws down some of her jewelry. This discarded jewelry can be interpreted as Seetha discarding the remnants of her conjugal, sensual relationship with Rama prior to entering a new life in Lanka (Aranya Kanda Section 54). Then, when Ravana reached Lanka, and asked her to marry him, he offered her jewelry, thereby showing an association between jewelry and the conjugal relationship he desired (Aranya Kanda Section 55). In Sundara Kanda, there are some passages that describe the jewelry Seetha was wearing. However, many other passages say she was not wearing any jewelry, thereby suggesting that Valimiki used the "lack of jewelry" in some passages as symbolism, to represent Seetha's sex-deprived life in Lanka... For these reasons, jewelry is often used as a symbol of sex and sexuality in Hindu texts.

Upon hearing of Rama's beauty from Hanumana and seeing the ring that Rama had sent to her through Hanumana, Seetha gazed at it for a while, and then blushed in delight and engaged in sexual embrace (मुदिता) with Hanumana, as if he was Rama personified (5.36.4,6). While engaging in that sexual act, she was completely satisfied by her lover, Hanumana, and her eyes and countenance were described to have been shining, thereby alluding at her joy when engaging in the act (5.36.5-6). After the completion of this act, she then praised the manly prowess of Hanumana for travelling across the ocean of 100 yojanas and reaching her (5.36.6-8):
गृहीत्वा प्रेक्षमाणा सा भर्तुः करविभूषणम्।
भर्तारमिव सम्प्राप्ता जानकी मुदिताऽभवत्।।5.36.4।।

She received the ornament that adorned her husband's hand and gazed at it and began sexual embrace (with Hanumana) as though her husband Rama had arrived.
चारु तद्वदनं तस्यास्ताम्रशुक्लायतेक्षणम्।
अशोभत विशालाक्ष्या राहुमुक्त इवोडुराट्।।5.36.5।।

Her lovely countenance with large white eyes with a reddish tinge in the corners shone like the Moon released from Rahu.

ततस्सा ह्रीमती बाला भर्तृसन्देशहर्षिता।
परितुष्टा प्रियं कृत्वा प्रशशंस महाकपिम्।।5.36.6।।

Young Sita felt delighted about her husband's news and blushed. Completely satisfied by the actions of her lover, Hanumana, she then praised him.

विक्रान्तस्त्वं समर्थस्त्वं प्राज्ञस्त्वं वानरोत्तम।
येनेदं राक्षसपदं त्वयैकेन प्रधर्षितम्।।5.36.7।।

"O foremost among the vanaras you have trespassed the abodes of demons all alone. You are mighty and capable and wise.

शतयोजनविस्तीर्ण स्सागरो मकरालयः।
विक्रमश्लाघनीयेन क्रमता गोष्पदीकृतः।।5.36.8।।

"You with your admirable prowess have reduced this ocean which is an abode of crocodiles stretching over a hundred yojanas to a cow's hoof mark.
Sundara Kanda Section 36[43] 
As shown in the passage above, Seetha had sex with Hanumana. This explains why, in verse 5.59.27, after leaving Lanka and reaching the Mahendra Mountains, Hanumana was able to describe Seetha to his fellow Vanaras as having "big hips, buttocks, and loin" (सुश्रोणी). Unless he he had sex with her, he would not have been able to see her naked body in enough detail to describe her buttocks and loin in the manner he did above... Furthermore, in the passage above, Valmiki mentions that Seetha engaged in the sexual act with Hanumana, as if he was Rama, thereby suggesting that Seetha thought of Rama in her mind when engaging in the sexual act. The reason for such behavior from Seetha was so that Hanumana would believe that Seetha was devoted to Rama and that she only had sex with him (Hanumana), thinking of Rama in her mind. The point was for Hanumana to believe that his body was merely an instrument Seetha used to satisfy her sexual desires towards Rama. She wanted Hanumana to believe that she was not committing any infidelity as her mind was towards Rama in the act. This would ensure that upon reaching Kishkindha, Hanumana would describe Seetha to Rama as being a "faithful, devoted wife in grief", which would inturn urge Rama to quickly attack Lanka, thereby fulfilling Seetha's political ploy of the conquest of Lanka.

After having sex with Hanumana, Seetha conversed with him normally, and seeing her pitiable state, Hanumana felt bad for her. To alleviate her pain, Hanumana thought of taking her on his back, and carrying her to Rama, thereby freeing her from the clutches of Ravana. Hearing of the prospect of travelling on Hanumana's back, all of Seetha's limbs were described to be amazed with sexual excitement (हर्षविस्मितसर्वाङ्गी):
मैथिली तु हरिश्रेष्ठाच्छ्रुत्वा वचनमद्भुतम्।
हर्षविस्मितसर्वाङ्गी हनुमन्तमथाब्रवीत्।।5.37.28।।

When Mythili heard the wonderful proposal from Hanuman, the best of vanaras, she was amazed with sexual excitement in every limb of her body and said:
Sundara Kanda Section 37[44] 
However, Seetha quickly controlled her sexual excitement, and told Hanumana that she could not ascend his back as she was solely devoted to Rama and would not touch the body of any other man:
भर्तुर्भक्तिं पुरस्कृत्य रामादन्यस्य वानर।
न स्पृशामि शरीरं तु पुंसो वानरपुङ्गव।।5.37.60।।

"O chief of vanaras I cherish my devotion towards Rama alone and not touch the body of any other man.

यदहं गात्रसंस्पर्शं रावणस्य बलाद्गता।
अनीशा किं करिष्यामि विनाथा विवशा सती।।5.37.61।।

"I had no control over myself. I was helpless and my husband was not present when I had to bear the touch of Ravana's limbs. What can I do?
Sundara Kanda Section 37[44] 
After saying that she would not touch the body of another man (5.37.60), she found the need to go on and justify her statement. After all, she obviously touched the body of Hanumana when she had sex with him, right? To justify what she said in verse 5.37.60, she added on, that when Ravana touched her, she was helpless and that it was against her will (5.37.61). This suggests that when she earlier said that she would not touch the body of another man, she did not mean it in a literal manner. Instead, she meant that she would not touch the body of another man, in a consensual manner, with feelings (of sexual desire) for that man. When she touched the body of Ravana, it was in a non-consensual manner, with no feelings (of sexual desire) for him (or so, as she wanted Hanumana to think). In that sense, through this passage, she essentially tries to convince Hanumana that when she touched him, it was never because of feelings (of sexual desire) for him. Instead, she said that she cherished her devotion to Rama alone, thereby alluding to Hanumana that when she earlier touched him in sexual intercourse, it was only upon thinking of Rama in her mind. It was never upon feeling sexually attracted to him (Hanumana). In essence, she said that she had only used his body as an instrument to satisfy her sexual desires towards Rama, all the while thinking of Rama alone in the sexual act, and therefore had committed no infidelity.

Hearing these words, Hanumana was completely convinced that Seetha had not committed any infidelity in having sex with him, and that she was completely loyal to Rama:
ततस्स कपिशार्दूलस्तेन वाक्येन तोषितः।
सीतामुवाच तच्छृत्वा वाक्यं वाक्यविशारदः।।5.38.1।।

Satisfied with the words of Sita, the tiger among monkeys, who was eloquent in speech said:

युक्तरूपं त्वया देवि भाषितं शुभदर्शने।
सदृशं स्त्रीस्वभावस्य साध्वीनां विनयस्य च।।5.38.2।।

"O queen O lady of auspicious appearance your words are most appropriate to and characteristic of a modest virtuous woman.

स्त्रीत्वं न तु समर्थं हि सागरं व्यतिवर्तितुम्।
मामधिष्ठाय विस्तीर्णं शतयोजनमायतम्।।5.38.3।।

"It may not be possible for a woman to cross on my back the vast ocean stretching over a hundred yojanas. It is not possible for a woman.

द्वितीयं कारणं यच्च ब्रवीषि विनयान्विते।
रामादन्यस्य नार्हामि संस्पर्शमिति जानकि ।।5.38.4।।
एतत्ते सदृशं देवि पत्न्यास्तस्य महात्मनः।
का ह्यन्या त्वामृते देवि ब्रूयाद्वचनमीदृशम्।।5.38.5।।

"O humble lady the second reason given by you, 'I ought not to touch a person other than Rama' is well said and worthy of you, being the wife of the great soul. Who else can speak such words?
Sundara Kanda Section 38[45]
Remember the above speech by Seetha, where she told Hanumana that she had never nor will she ever touch a man other than Rama, with feelings (of sexual desire) for him? From that speech, it would appear that Seetha thought Hanumana's proposal for her to ascend his back was laced with sexual desire and was a request for sex. For that reason, Hanumana took a moment to clarify that he did not have any sexual feelings when he made the proposal, and that the proposal was only made to unite her with Rama, and because crossing the ocean spanning 100 yojanas is no simple task:
कारणैर्बहुभिर्देवि रामप्रियचिकीर्षया।स्नेहप्रस्कन्नमनसा मयैतत्समुदीरितम्।।5.38.7।।
"O queen my heart is drenched with love for Rama and desires to please him for many reasons. Therefore these words have been spoken by me.
लङ्काया दुष्प्रवेशत्वाद्दुस्तरत्वान्महोदधेः।सामर्थ्यादात्मनश्चैव मयैतत्समुदीरितम्।।5.38.8।।
"Crossing the ocean and entering Lanka are difficult. But I accomplished it. Hence my proposal.
इच्छामि त्वां समानेतुमद्यैव रघुबन्धुना।गुरुस्नेहेन भक्त्या च नान्यथैतदुदाहृतम्।।5.38.9।।
"I offered to take you today itself out of my love and devotion to Rama with a desire to unite you with him and not with any other intention.
Sundara Kanda Section 38[45]
After saying this, Hanumana asked Seetha to give some sort of identification that he would be able to convey to Rama. So, Seetha narrated the story of an intimate moment with Rama when they were on the Chitrakuta mountains, and asked Hanumana to convey this story to Rama. She also gave her head jewel (चूडामणिम्) to Hanumana as a mark of her identification, that he could later convey to Rama... After receiving these two pieces of identification, Hanumana decided to depart from Seetha (and Lanka) and return back to Kishkindha. However, as he was about to depart, Seetha again attempted to reinforce the notion, to Hanumana, that she was sexually devoted to Rama, thereby alluding that when she earlier had sex with him (Hanumana), she was thinking of Rama alone in her mind; she told Hanumana:
यथा तं पुरुषव्याघ्रं गात्रैश्शोकाभिकर्शितैः।
संस्पृशेयं सकामाहं तथा कुरु दयां मयि।।5.40.3।।

"I, with my limbs emaciated in grief, have a desire to embrace that tiger among men (Rama). Be kind to me (and fulfill my desire).
Sundara Kanda Section 40[46] 
This speech by Seetha served the purpose of convincing Hanumana that she was devoted to Rama alone, so that Hanumana would convey the same to Rama, and thereby urge Rama to attack Lanka and free her... After hearing these words of Seetha, Hanumana further consoled her by saying that Rama would attack Lanka soon. Then, he decided to depart from the Ashoka Grove...

Hanumana Changes his Mind and Stays in the Ashoka Grove to Wage War with Ravana's Army

After Hanumana decided to depart from the Ashoka Grove and took leave of Seetha, another thought sprung up in his mind. He thought that it would be important to assess the strength of Ravana's army. So, he decided to attack the Ashoka Grove. He thought that if he attacked the grove, Ravana's army would be provoked to attack him in an attempt to defend it. In that fight, he thought that he would be able to assess the strength of Ravana's army:
इहैव तावत्कृतनिश्चयो ह्यहं यदि व्रजेयं प्लवगेश्वरालयम्।
परात्मसम्मर्दविशेषतत्त्ववित्ततः कृतं स्यान्मम भर्तृशासनम्।।5.41.7।।

'If I ascertain the difference in the strength of enemies and vanaras in war here itself and return to Kishkinda, the abode of vanaras, then I would have executed the orders of my lord properly.

ततस्समासाद्य रणे दशाननं समन्त्रिवर्गं सबलप्रयायिनम्।
हृदि स्थितं तस्य मतं बलं च वै सुखेन मत्त्वाऽहमितः पुनर्व्रजे।।5.41.9।।

'I can return happily only after I gauge the tenheaded Ravana's army in war, his strength, his companions including the ministers and his mind.

इदमस्य नृशंसस्य नन्दनोपममुत्तमम्।
वनं नेत्रमनःकान्तं नानाद्रुमलतायुतम्।।5.41.10।।

'This Ashoka garden of Ravana filled with different kinds of trees and slender women is a feast to the eyes and mind. It is an excellent garden like the Nandana garden of Indra.

इदं विध्वंसयिष्यामि शुष्कं वनमिवानलः।
अस्मिन्भग्ने ततः कोपं करिष्यति दशाननः।।5.41.11।।

'I will devastate this garden, just as fire destroys a dried up forest. This will enrage Ravana.

ततो महत्साश्वमहारथद्विपं बलं समादेक्ष्यति राक्षसाधिपः।
त्रिशूलकालायसपट्टिसायुधं ततो महद्युद्धमिदं भविष्यति।।5.41.12।।

'Then the demon king will order the horses, chariots and elephants and army equipped with tridents and spears to march against me. A great war will take place.
Sundara Kanda Section 41[47] 
In verse 5.41.10, the word लता was used, which I have translated as "slender women". But keep in mind that the word also means "creepers", thereby suggesting that the creepers in the Ashoka Grove were symbolic and represented women... Furthermore, in that verse, "trees" (द्रुम) were also mentioned. However, as I already mentioned in this post, at times the trees referred to in the Ashoka Grove were symbolic, and represented women, whereas at other times, they were actual trees (in the literal sense). So, when reading the subsequent verses, we must look at the context to see if the trees being referred to are symbolic or not. That being said, verse 5.41.10 suggests that Hanumana planned on destroying the trees in the grove in addition to attacking the slender women of the grove. Hanumana went by that plan and attacked the grove in that manner, in the subsequent verses:
ततो मारुतवत्कृद्धो मारुतिर्भीमविक्रमः।
ऊरुवेगेन महता द्रुमान्क्षेप्तुमथारभत्।।5.41.14।।

Furious Maruti endowed with fierce valour started uprooting the trees with the speed sprung from his thighs like the Windgod.

ततस्तु हनुमान्वीरो बभञ्ज प्रमदावनम्।
मत्तद्विजसमाघुष्टं नानाद्रुमलतायुतम्।।5.41.15।।

Then, the brave Hanuman crushed the garden of wanton women, resonant with the cries of birds and filled with a variety of trees and slender women.

तद्वनं मथितैर्वृक्षैर्भिन्नैश्च सलिलाशयैः।
चूर्णितैः पर्वताग्रैश्च बभूवाप्रियदर्शनम्।।5.41.16।।

That garden with destroyed trees, seduced ponds and powdered mountain peaks looked unpleasant.

नानाशकुन्तविरुतैः प्रभिन्नैस्सलिलाशयैः।
ताम्रैः किसलयैः क्लान्तै: क्लान्तद्रुमलतायुतम्।।5.41.17।।
न बभौ तद्वनं तत्र दावानलहतं यथा।
व्याकुलावरणा रेजुर्विह्वला इव ता लताः।।5.41.18।।

Slender women and trees defiled, birds shrieking, the embankments of ponds seduced, its tender coppery red shoots exhausted, the garden looked as though it is burnt by forest fire and the slender women looked like women shivering in fear with their robes disarrayed.

सा विह्वलाऽशोकलताप्रताना वनस्थली शोकलताप्रताना।
जाता दशास्यप्रमदावनस्य कपेर्बलाद्धि प्रमदावनस्य।।5.41.20।।

The garden of wanton women of Ravana appeared as though it was spreading the creepers of sorrow, since it was forcefully afflicted by the monkey who had set out to protect a woman.

स तस्य कृत्वार्थपतेर्महाकपिर्महद्व्यलीकं मनसो महात्मनः।
युयुत्सुरेको बहुभिर्महाबलैश्शिया ज्वलंस्तोरणमास्थितः कपिः।।5.41.21।।

The great vanara having hypocrisy, rousing anger in the mind of the great lord of wealth, stood at the exit doorway ready to combat singlehanded with many warriors in that mighty army blazing in glory.
Sundara Kanda Section 41[47] 

Image result for hanumana ashoka

Verse 5.41.14 mentions that Hanumana started uprooting trees using the speed of his thighs. Now let us stop for a moment and think... If a man were to uproot a tree, he would ideally wrap his arms around the tree and use the power of his strong arms and abdomen to uproot the tree. Thighs would play a very minimal role in the process. However, verse 5.41.14 mentions that the trees were uprooted by Hanumana from the speed of his thighs. This raises the possibility that the trees Hanumana was uprooting were symbolic.

Perhaps subsequent verses may give us a clue?

The next verse, 5.41.15, mentions that "Hanuman crushed the garden of wanton women, resonant with the cries of birds and filled with a variety of trees and slender women". The fact that the grove was called "the garden of wanton women" suggests that Hanumana mainly crushed the women in the grove. The fact that the promiscuity of these women is emphasized in that verse alludes at sex. In other words, he crushed them by raping them in sexual intercourse. This explains verse 5.41.14 much better. The trees referred to in that verse were symbolic and represented the women in the grove, which Hanumana had raped by exerting the strength of his thighs during the act of sexual intercourse. That being said, although verse 5.41.15 mentions that mainly the women of the grove were crushed, it also hints that actual (non-symbolic) trees were also crushed by Hanumana. Verse 5.41.16 also mentions that actual trees in the grove were destroyed, therefore supporting that claim I just made. In addition to that, verse 5.41.16 alludes to the symbolic nature of the ponds that Hanumana had attacked, by mentioning that Hanumana had seduced (भिन्नैः) them. Since the verse mentions that they were seduced, it seems that they were actually women!

Verses 5.41.17-18 give a good summary of the destruction Hanumana had done to the grove. Those verses mention that actual trees were defiled, thereby causing the grove to appear as if it was burned by forest fire. However, the major emphasis in those verses was on how Hanumana had stripped the slender women in the grove of their robes and defiled (i.e. raped) them, thereby causing them to shiver in fear. Verses 5.41.17-18 also mention that Hanumana had seduced the embankments of the ponds, and caused their coppery red shoots to be exhausted.  As I have already mentioned, these ponds were symbolic and represented women, thereby suggesting that Hanumana had sex with these women and that they were exhausted from the sexual intercourse. After describing the fate of the grove and its women, Valmiki glossed over the hypocrisy of Hanumana, in that he, who set out to protect a woman (Seetha) had ended up raping the wanton women of Ravana, in the garden (5.41.20-21). After destroying the Ashoka Grove and raping its women, Hanumana awaited at the entrance of the grove, for Ravana's army to attack him...

After waiting for a while, the army arrived. Seeing the army arrive, Hanumana then flaunted his penis. By flaunting his penis, it was as if he was taunting the enemy that he was able to rape their women and that they could not even protect them:
हनुमानपि तेजस्वी श्रीमान्पर्वतसन्निभः।
क्षितावाविध्य लाङ्गूलं ननाद च महास्वनम्।।5.42.30।।

Gigantic Hanuman, illustrious and brilliant, roared and waved his penis striking it with force on the ground causing loud sound.
Sundara Kanda Section 41[48]
Then, Hanumana attacked the incoming army and completely destroyed it. Following that, as we all know, Ravana sent a few more batches of his army, which Hanumana destroyed as well... After those batches were destroyed, Ravana sent his son Indrajita to fight off Hanumana. It was then that Hanumana was defeated, captured, and brought into Ravana's Sabha by the powerful Indrajita...

Given the aforementioned background of the sexual crimes committed by Hanumana, we can clearly see the cause for the anger in Ravana that led him to give Hanumana a punishment of having his penis severed... Upon entering Ravana's harem, Hanumana had raped Ravana's consorts, not even sparing Ravana's most beautiful and most favorite consort, Mandodari. However, his sexual prowess did not end there. Once he entered the Ashoka Grove, he terrorized the husbands of the women in the grove, causing them to flee. Following this, he stripped the women naked, and raped them very cruelly. He then had sex with Seetha, the woman that Ravana truly loved. Again, when leaving the grove, he raped females in the Ashoka Grove and destroyed that grove, which was no less than heaven on Earth! Hearing of these acts of sexual prowess, Ravana wanted to give Hanumana a punishment that would subdue this superhuman virility; hence the punishment of having his penis severed!

Purpose Behind Adding Interpolations of Hanumana Burning Down Lanka Into Sundara Kanda

Now that I have discussed at length why Ravana gave Hanumana the punishment of having his penis severed, we are left with one more important question that needs to be addressed:
What was the actual purpose behind adding interpolations into Sundara Kanda of Hanumana burning down Lanka?
The simple answer that most people (myself included) would give is that such interpolations were added into Sundara Kanda due to bhakti for Hanumana that arose among the masses in the post-Vedic period... However, bhakti for Hanumana was not the only reason for these interpolations. During the post-Vedic period, when the masses started to perceive the Seetha-Hanumana relationship as akin to that between a mother and son, there was a rise in bhakti for Seetha. We can clearly see this bhakti for Seetha in the burning of Lanka sequence. After Hanumana's penis was put aflame, in Sundara Kanda Section 53, Seetha prayed to Agni Deva and requested him to not let Hanumana feel any physical pain. As a result, Hanumana did not feel the pain of the burn, and realized that this was due to the prayers of Seetha... However, if we look at the alternative narrative in Sundara Kanda Section 58, where Hanumana tells his Vanara friends all that transpired in Lanka, he boasts to his Vanara friends that he did not feel the pain of the burn, but does not tell them that this was due to Seetha's prayers... We see less bhakti for Seetha in that narration of the event. This can be explained by the fact that alternative narratives are less prone to tampering by later poets, than the direct narratives are.

Related image

The poets that added in these interpolated sequences into Sundara Kanda carefully crafted the interpolations so that they did not change the crux of the story. For example, they crafted the interpolations in such a manner that the interpolated narratives still symbolically showed that Hanumana had raped the females in Lanka... They altered the text to show that the punishment to Hanumana's penis, as decided by Ravana, was to burn it as opposed to severing it. As we know from various passages in Rig Veda and in Brhadaranyaka Upanishad (references provided in this post), sacrificial fire symbolically represents sexual intercourse, and the sacrificial altar symbolically represents the female's vagina. When Hanumana's penis was put on fire by Ravana's guards, he moved throughout Lanka, and transferred that fire on his penis to all parts of the city of Lanka. If we recall far back enough, when Hanumana first saw Lanka, he likened it to a beautiful woman, placing emphasis on her hips and loins. Hence, him transferring this fire on his penis throughout all of Lanka symbolically represents him transferring the sacrificial fire, nay sexual intercourse, from his penis to the sacrificial altar, nay vagina, of the many women in Lanka. In other words, it symbolically represents the rape of the many women in Lanka, which I described in detail earlier on in this post... Hence, by carefully crafting this interpolation, later poets were able to maintain the crux of the story, while injecting bhakti for Hanumana and Seetha into the Sundara Kanda narrative!


[1] An Analysis of Hanumana's Bhakti for Rama
[2] Did Hanumana Really Burn Down Lanka - Part 1
[3] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 54 
[4] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 58 
[5] Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - Sarga 67
[6] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 1 
[7] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 57 
[8] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 53 
[9] Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - Sarga 63 
[10] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 39
[11] Valmiki Ramayana e-texts
[12] Anonymous' answer to What is the difference between Ramayan and its Thai interpretation Ramakian?
[13] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 2 
[14] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 3 
[15] Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - Sarga 111 
[16] Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - Sarga 24 
[17] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 5 
[18] Why Men Are Attracted To Subordinate Women
[19] Why Did Rama Wage War With Ravana? To Save Seetha or to Kill Ravana?
[20] Can Crying Be Sexually Arousing?
[21] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 9 
[22] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 10 
[23] Were the Vanaras of Ramayana Humans or Chimps?
[24] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 11
[25] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 12
[26] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 13
[27] Facilitating sexual arousal via anger, aggression, or dominance
[28] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 14 
[29] That Person Is So Awesome They Give Me Goose Bumps
[30] Manusmriti Chapter 9
[31] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 16
[32] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 15
[33] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 17
[34] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 28
[35] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 29
[36] 10 Things Her Body is Telling You
[37] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 30
[38] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 31
[39] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 33
[40] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 34
[41] Gender-Specificity of Initial and Controlled Visual Attention to Sexual Stimuli in Androphilic Women and Gynephilic Men
[42] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 35
[43] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 36
[44] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 37
[45] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 38
[46] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 40
[47] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 41
[48] Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - Sarga 42


  1. Wow, truly stunning blog article, this is the best article that you have posted to-date. Thanks so much Milin, for taking the time to go through such minute details of Sundara Kanda. I mainly focused on reading the Hanuman-Sita interactions and dialogue, but it will take me a few days to read the entire blog article thoroughly.

    Milin - I want to thank you from the bottom of my heart for such an authentic presentation of Valmiki Ramayan. I have become spiritual in recent years and after reading your blog, I too hope to achieve the same level of pleasure that Hanuman, Lakshaman, Ravan, and perhaps Dashrath enjoyed with a beautiful woman like Sita. Thanks to you that I am able to firmly direct my thoughts in this direction. This should be the purpose of life. Achieving God realization is 'param bhog'. This world is very restrictive and abusive and lacking.

    I am very surprised at the detailed showing of Sita's character and mindset in this article.

    One question - I couldn't make it out from reading your article ... was Sita truly attracted to Hanuman and was simply showcasing herself as a chaste woman, or was she really devoted to Ram? I got the feeling that it is the former.

    I will probably ask more questions and discuss with you in the coming days.

    Oh, one more question - was Sita ever sexually attracted to Ravan? She seemed to be in Aranya Kand, so why the sudden turnoff in Sundar Kanda, from what I am interpreting as turnoff? Refusal to marry Ravan ... is that the reason ... Ravan pressing her for marriage, while Hanuman not.

    Thanks so much again for taking the time to research all this !

    1. Rohit,

      Thank you! I also agree that this is probably my best article so far. After all, it took almost 2 months for this single article. Usually what happens is that when I make claims like Hanumana was not a brahmacharya or that he raped females in Lanka, people are hesitant to accept it. Part of that hesitation is that it is hard to convey the evolution of his sexuality in Sundara Kanda through a single comment... I hope this article was more clear in getting my point across!

      Now for your questions...

      For the most part, Seetha was attracted to Hanumana and showed herself as a chaste woman, for political purposes of course... I do not feel that her devotion to Rama was genuine at all. If we look from Ayodhya Kanda, at the Rama-Seetha conversation when she goes to convince Rama to take her to exile, Rama initially declines her request saying the forest is too dangerous for her... However, Seetha does not reply to that point Rama made. Instead, it seems as if she is "forcing" her devotion on him. She then goes on to say that she does not even think of any other man other than Rama, even though her fidelity was not questioned by Rama, revealing something very fishy in her behavior. It almost seems as if she was trying to hide her infidelity from Rama... When she is departing for exile, Kaushalya hints at Seetha's infidelity by saying the following to her:

      असत्य स्सर्वलोकेऽस्मिन्सततं सत्कृताः प्रियैः।
      भर्तारं नानुमन्यन्ते विनिपातगतं स्त्रियः।।2.39.20।।

      Those women who, although always gratified, do not follow their husband when they fall into misfortune, are regarded as unfaithful.

      एष स्वभावो नारीणामनुभूय पुरा सुखम्।
      अल्पामप्यापदं प्राप्य दुष्यन्ति प्रजहत्यपि।।2.39.21।।

      Though they have enjoyed all pleasures (with their husbands) earlier, they censure them in the wake of the slightest trouble or even abandon them. This is the nature of women.

      असत्यशीला विकृता दुर्ग्राह्यहृदयास्सदा।
      युवत्यः पापसंङ्कल्पाः क्षणमात्राद्विरागिणः।।2.39.22।।

      Evilminded young ladies engage in infidelity. They are of perverted nature. They are inscrutable. In an instant they lose their love (for their husbands).

      न कुलं न कृतं विद्या न दत्तं नापि सङ्ग्रहः।
      स्त्रीणां गृह्णाति हृदयमनित्यहृदया हि ताः।।2.39.23।।

      Neither family traditions nor benefits received, nor education nor affection nor gifts nor even accumulated wealth attract women's hearts. Their minds are unstable indeed.

      साध्वीनां हि स्थितानां तु शीले सत्ये श्रुते शमे।
      स्त्रीणां पवित्रं परमं पतिरेको विशिष्यते।।2.39.24।।

      But for those virtuous women whose minds are fixed in chastity, truth, scriptures and stability, the husband occupies a distinguished place and is considered supremely holy.

      स त्वया नावमन्तव्यः पुत्रः प्रव्राजितो मम।
      तव दैवतमस्त्वेष निर्धनः सधनोऽपि वा।।2.39.25।।

      You must not underestimate my son in his exile. You must treat him as your god whether he is wealthy or not.

      Interestingly, such skepticism on loyalty to Rama was only shown for Seetha. Kaushalya does not doubt Lakshmana's loyalty to Rama. Neither does Sumitra...

    2. Seetha realized that Kaushalya was questioning her loyalty, and hence she replied:

      न मामसज्जनेनार्या समानयितुमर्हति।
      धर्माद्विचलितुं नाहमलं चन्द्रादिव प्रभा।।2.39.28।।

      The noble lady (Kaushalya) should not equate me with wicked people (women). I cannot swerve from the path of virtue like radiance which never leaves the Moon.

      Now for your second question... Yes, she was sexually attracted to Ravana. That is mentioned very clearly in Aranya Kanda. In Sundara Kanda, she had to refuse Ravana's advances so that Ravana would continue to have desire for her and would keep chasing her... This was necessary for her political ploy of conquering Lanka. But even then, her attraction to Ravana is alluded to when he first approaches her. In Sundara Kanda Section 18, when Ravana leaves his chambers to go to the Ashoka Grove, his beauty is emphasized by Valmiki. Then, upon seeing Ravana, in Sundara Kanda Section 19, Valmiki describes her inner state as if she was under the spell of and being influenced by Ravana. So the attraction to him is still evident...

    3. Thanks for the replies Milin. I find 2 things that are remarkable about how you have presented Valmiki Ramayan -

      1) You present the characters' mindset in a completely different and correct perspective compared to what is fed to us via the society. I was struck by your reply above on Kaushalya - Sita dialogue. You are indeed correct, I never ever thought about it that way. Why would Kaushalya give this kind of lecture to Sita?

      On that note, didn't a sage's wife (Bharadwaj or Atri) give similar advice to Sita in the jungles?

      2) You present proofs with Sanskrit verses and their correct translation in English and keeping the situation unfolding in the story, in mind. For example, 'modit' is indeed sexual embrace (Sita gave a sexual embrace to Hanuman).

    4. Rohit,

      Yeah, that was Anusuya who gave the advice to Seetha. I always got the feeling that she was a lesbian due to the way she kept kissing Seetha repeatedly in those last few sections of Ayodhya Kanda when she interacted with her... Or perhaps it was just a way for the elderly woman to show affection to Seetha?

      My next posts will probably be on Parts 2 and 3 of "Who killed Karna" and Part 2 of "The Affair of Rama and Lakshmana with Shurpanakha". I am also planning on finishing up that Seetha Agnipariksha post. BTW, do you have any topics in specific that you would like me to make a future post on?

  2. I may have to read the verses of Ansuya and Sita. This keeps getting better ... Sita involved in lesbian sex :)

    Thanks for your offer on future blog articles. I would really love to read your conclusion on Sita Agneepariksha and Sita-Lakshaman relationship.


    1. LOL! Anusuya may have been attracted to Seetha, but we cannot say the same for Seetha... Ok. I will focus on those topics in the future!

    2. Yeah that may be true, but even if Sita was not a lesbian, but just being involved in lesbian act with Anasuya is pretty exciting.

      Anyway, I re-read the section in this blog article regarding Sita-Hanuman dialogue.

      Sita probably used the same tactic with Ravan as she used with Hanuman ... carefully presenting herself as faithful to Ram while making sure that she still gets to have sexual pleasure with Ravan and Hanuman, which is what she really wanted at respective times. Very cunning indeed !

      It is no wonder that Ram disowned her after the war. Also, one other thing that I have noticed about Sita - she likes to have very long duration sexual relationships with her partners. So, first with Ram, then many years in the jungles with Lakshaman (I am guessing), then her plan was to live in Lanka as Ravan's consort for many years, then after the war, she seems to want a long term relationship with Hanuman, she wasn't satisfied with having sex just once with Hanuman.

      She knew Ram well, he didn't like such behavior from his wife, so she tried to present herself as a devout wife.

    3. I agree with what you said about Rama... People tend to blame him for abandoning Seetha without looking at the entire situation! Is there any evidence that she had a long term relationship with Hanumana, after the war was over?

    4. Hey Milin, BTW thanks for agreeing to look into the 2 other topics that I am interested in, regarding Valmiki Ramayan. I appreciate it.

      There is no direct evidence in Valmiki Ramayan about Sita-Hanuman long term sexual relationship. I inferred that based on 3 things - 1) Sita going for a tour of Ayodhya with the women of Kishkindha and not participating with Ram in the procession in Ayodhya, 2) Sita giving the necklace that Ram presented her during his coronation in Ayodhya, to Hanuman, in front of everyone, 3) Her attitude towards former lovers were long term in intent (Ram, Lakshaman, Ravan).

    5. Also, I am glad that you switched to Valmiki Ramayan on IIT Kanpur website, as opposed to I agree with you that the translator in the latter website had biases. One thing that got my attention was - in the verse that states that Sita was completely satisfied with her lover Hanuman's actions ... the word 'shrutva' is used in the latter website, while the word 'krutva' used in the IIT website, which makes a difference in the meaning of the verse. I tend to believe that 'krutva' is correct under the circumstances, you have it right.

    6. Rohit, I see the logic behind you hinting at a relationship between Hanumana and Seetha, but we have to remember that Hanumana went to Kishkindha after the coronation was over... Perhaps she just had some extra affection for Hanumana, but due to the situation (i.e. she was queen of Ayodhya, and Hanumana lived in the south) this affection could not materialize in the form of a long term relationship...

      Yes, it is the kandas translated by Desiraju Hanumanta Rao that are biased on that website. MN Dutt's translation is better, but he does not offer a verse by verse translation, so whenever you feel that the translation is incorrect, you have to go through the sanskrit and find the appropriate verse.

      The critical edition also uses the word "shrutva", but in this context, "krutva" seems like the correct option. Sometimes, I go with the southern recession and sometimes with the critical edition. It all depends on context...

  3. Thanks Milin. I didn't know about Hanuman returning to Kishkindha, what you say makes sense.

    I have been reading this blog article, it is nicely written, not many questions on my end. I have a comment and a question -

    1) I think Sita refers to Hanuman as a bull amongst 'vanaras'. This may be considered another proof of sexual intercourse between Sita and Hanuman. Till that point, Hanuman had not done anything that can be considered bullish, outside of having sex with Sita and other women.

    2) To me, it seems that Sita was convinced that the man hiding in the tree must not be Ram or Lakshman, because why would they hide? They would just come out and meet Sita. So, it seems she knew that it was another man, but fantasized about Ram to avoid the thought of infidelity or she really was thinking of Ram in a sexual way (like you had mentioned, for both these thought processes).

    She also must have thought that the man hiding in the tree must not be an ally of Ravan, since no man except Ravan was allowed near Sita.

    Do you think - Sita was astonished after hearing the man sing praises of Ram, because she expected the man to come out of the tree and comfort her instead of singing Ram's praises? After all, she went through a pretty good sequence of acting to draw the man out of the tree.

    You must have spent a lot of time researching and verifying the translations. Thanks for your time and effort !

    1. Another point that occurred to me, which supports your position that Sita and Hanuman did not have long term relationship after the war -

      When Ram disowns Sita in Lanka, he gives names of other men that she can go to and become their wife or mistress, the names were Lakshman, Bharat, Shatrughna, Vibhishana, Sugreev. Not Hanuman. Hanuman was not royalty.

    2. Rohit,

      1) Which verse does Seetha call Hanumana a bull among Vanaras?

      2) When Seetha was trying to allure the man and provoking him to step out of the tree, she did not clearly know who the man was. One part of herself would have told her that it would have been someone other than Rama, and another part of her would have told her that it would have been Rama. But there was no way to confirm, until the man would have stepped out or introduced himself. So she would have had an internal conflict in her mind regarding the identity of the man. When Hanumana sang praises of Rama, she was pleasantly astonished that the man was not Rama... So, I would say her astonishment arose from the fact that she realized the man behind the tree was not Rama. Of course since deep within she wanted the man to be someone other than Rama, she was quite pleased as well...

      It was good you brought up the last point... For that I would say that Rama likely had no idea of what went on between Hanumana and Seetha in Lanka. If you look carefully at that list of men, they were all rulers. Rama considered his other brothers as worthy to be kings. He said that if Bharata wants to keep the throne he could. he offers Lakshmana half the throne of Ayodhya. And it is obvious that Sugriva and Vibhishana were kings. The fact that Rama directs Seetha to kings suggests a possibility that just like Kishkindha, Lanka had a matriarchal system and hence for the next man to rule Lanka, he had to marry Seetha, the consort of the previous King Ravana.

    3. Thanks for the reply and explanation on Sita's astonishment.

      I think, Vibhishan ended-up marrying Mandodari and other wives of Ravan, so what you said above makes sense about matriarchal society. Although, I have not actually come across Vibhishan marrying Ravan's wivesin Valmiki Ramayan, but I have heard it elsewhere.

      After Sita has sex with Hanuman, she refers to him as bull amongst vanaras, Sundar Kanda 36.9. There was also another reference, but can't find it now.

      I have been thinking about your earlier comment on Kaushalya-Sita dialogue + how Sita attracted the man in the tree to come out and have sex with her. As you know, I am interested in and attracted to Sita's character, so I want to run something by you in a new comment below, just to get your opinion.

    4. Aranya Kanda -

      2.9: Viradh takes Sita in his lap.

      2.13: Viradh praises the hips of Sita and wants to make her his wife.

      2:14: translation on IITK website says that Sita is bewildered out of fear. I don't think 'sambhrant' means fear. I am going to say that she become excited to hear what he said in 2:13 ... sexually excited. I will explain more below.

      2:15, 16: Again, I don't agree with the translation. I think the translation should be - trembling (in sexual excitement) like a banana plant in the wind, she mounted on Viradh (traditionally, it is always woman on top). Ram speaks to Lakshman in a pale voice, upon seeing this. Note - Sita does not cry for help, nor does Ram help at this point.

      2:17, 18, 19: Consensual intercourse between Sita and Viradh has commenced (Sita has entered his "digit"). Ram (in a pale voice) calls Sita of good conduct and accustomed to utmost comfort, specifically sexual comfort in this context. Ram also says that Kaikeyi is far-sighted, her goal was not just to prevent Ram from becoming the king, but to also send him to the jungles for some years.

      Sita was accustomed to a life of utmost comforts and luxury (including sexual comforts) in Ayodhya and possibly Mithila. She wasn't just having sex with Ram, in Ayodhya, but a variety of handsome men of all shapes/sizes/colors. The senses get tired of the "same old" very quickly and need variety. It is not against 'Dharma' to mate with men from her husband's group (Ram's friends, relatives, servants, slaves, etc.) With a powerful husband like Ram, these other men are extensions of his power.

      In the jungles (12+ years at the beginning of chapter 2 of Aranya Kanda), all she had were Ram and Lakshman. Don't think the sages were passionate people. At this point, Sita was basically a beggar and willing to "eat" rubbish like Viradh. That was Kaikeyi's plan.

      Although, Sita was not ordered to go into the jungles by Kaikeyi, but she figured that she would follow her husband and when she did, Kaikeyi did not stop her.

    5. One explanation on Aranya Kanda 2:15 - a banana plant would wave sorta gently in wind, due to the size of the plan. Sita was waving gently (not trembling out of fear).

    6. Rohit,

      I have added a latest comments widget on my blog so it would be easier to track comments...

      Yes, you are right that Valmiki Ramayana does not mention anything about Vibhishana marrying Ravana's wives. I think it is Ramacharitamanas by Tulsidas that mentions that... And thanks for that reference about Hanumana being called bull among Vanaras...

      Now for the analysis of Viraadha-Seetha-Rama incident... I agree that "sambhrant" should not be taken as fear. Note that in 3.2.9, Viraadha takes Seetha on his lap. But no fear on Seetha's part. Then, he abuses Rama/Lakshmana till 3.2.12. Still no fear on Seetha's part. Then, Viraadha praises Seetha's hips and says he will make Seetha his wife. Only after that we see the use of the word "sambhranta". Given the sexual manner in which Viraadha described Seetha, it is logical to say that "sambhranta" should be interpreted in a sexual context, to mean sexual excitement. That verse also mentions that Viraadha spoke very haughtily and only after that Seetha was attracted, suggesting the type of men she was attracted to. Like Viraadha, Ravana was also very haughty... Verses 3.2.15-16 mention that Rama saw Seetha trembling when she entered Viraadha in sexual intercourse. This implies that her trembling was due to the sexual intercourse, not due to fear.

  4. Hi Milin - Can you please analyze the following verses from Sundar Kand (verses numbered as in IITK website)? I feel that the verses have been moved around and manipulated with, probably during the British rule in India, but these verses seem to show further proof of Hanuman-Sita sexual union in Lanka.

    It is also odd that in chapters 36-40 (Sundar Kand), Hanuman readies himself to leave Lanka 2-4 times and each time except at the end of chapter 40, he doesn't leave and the conversation with Sita continues. Odd.

    Here are the verses, please analyze, would love to have your opinion -

    39.19, 39.20, 39.21, 40.2, 40.3

    I feel they have been manipulated to go out of original place/sequence.

    1. In verses 39.19-21, she tries to convince Hanumana that she was devoted to Rama so that when he goes to Rama he would not address her an undevoted/unchaste wife. She re-emphasizes this in verses 40.2-3. I don't think the verses were misplaced, but instead I see a desperate attempt on her part to drive home the message to Hanumana that she was devoted solely to Rama. For a man like Rama, filled with male pride, the fact that his devoted wife would be in extreme pain would not be acceptable and that would urge him to attack Lanka ASAP. Seetha tries to stimulate Rama's masculinity throughout the entire conversation. She initially starts off by "pretending" that she thought Rama would have abandoned her and that she was in extreme grief (Section 28), and builds up the conversation to the point where she says the following:

      यथा स च महाबाहुर्मां तारयति राघवः।
      अस्माद्धुःखाम्बुसंरोधात्त्वं समाधातुमर्हसि।।5.39.9।।

      "You must pacify the strongarmed Rama in a manner by which he will help me to cross the ocean of grief and rlieve me.

      जीवन्तीं मां यथा रामः सम्भावयति कीर्तिमान्।
      तत्तथा हनुमन्वाच्यं वाचा धर्ममवाप्नुहि।।5.39.10।।

      "Let the illustrious Rama take me alive. Help me with your (persuasive) words and you will acquire merit.

      नित्यमुत्साहयुक्ताश्च वाचश्रुत्वा त्वयेरिताः।
      वर्धिष्यते दाशरथेः पौरुषं मदवाप्तये।।5.39.11।।

      "On hearing your ever spirited words his manliness to get me back will be charged.

      Rama was the type of man whose aggression was fueled by seeing his dependent (in this case wife) in pain! Seetha exploited this...

  5. Hi Milin - thanks for putting-up the comments widget and for your last 2 comments from 9/15. I see you have put-up another article, I am going to read it, thanks for it, pretty excited to read that new article.

    Regarding the kind of men that Sita liked - completely agree with your comment, after all she is Ravan's daughter :)

    I also agree with your comment on Sita making very very sure to appear chaste in front of Hanuman, in order to convince Ram. Also, if she did not make any attempts to appear chaste, and then if Hanuman had spoken at length about her to other vanaras, can you imagine the assault on Sita after the war, by the vanaras? :) There is a reference in Valmiki Ramayan that after the war, when Vibhishan brings Sita to Ram, his men are driving away all the vanaras who were excited to get a glimpse of the beautiful woman.

  6. Hi Milin - I have been reading some chapters on Sundara Kand. Wanted to make couple comments -

    1) Verse 26.2 hints strongly at Sita in dispair due to lack of sexual satisfaction, she is desperate for sexual contact. I did some reading into why horses roll on the ground, sorrow or anguish is not a reason why they roll on the ground. Ravan is not having sex with Sita and not allowing other men near her, but 3-4 times when Ravan is talking to Sita in Ashok garden and when the females ogres are talking to Sita, Valmiki describes Sita's smile and teeth, so she was alluring Ravan to have sex with her. In 20.6, Ravan seems to be saying that desire can behave however it wants in his mind and body, but he is not going to have sex with Sita. Not sure if I interpreted it correctly.

    2) In 22.19, Sita says to Ravan that she is the wife of a dharmatma (Ram) and daughter-in-law of Dashrath. To the best of my knowledge, Dashrath was not known as a great dharmatma or upholder of religion.

    I don't think that this verse is about protection, because Dashrath is dead and Sita does not mention Lakshman. She mentions Ram, but not in the context of a great warrior.

    Sita is referring to her status as the wife of a dharmatma and the daughter-in-law of Dashrath. She is saying to Ravan - how dare you intimidate me and talk to me like this, and that I am already the wife of somebody, and I have a preferred status with Dashrath (not an ordinary citizen/woman of Ayodhya).

    In this regards, it is interesting to see Sita refer to Dashrath in the same breath as Ram. No explicit hints of anything going on between Sita and Dashrath, but this verse is interesting.

    Maybe, in a general way, Sita is saying that she already belongs to another family whose men can enjoy me, so I can't belong to or be owned by you (Ravan).

    Sita refers 2-3 times to Ravan about establishing friendship with Ram and also says that it will be fortunate or auspicious for Ravan if that is the case. IOWs, if Ravan were to become an ally of Ram, he would be considered within the circle of Ram and then Sita could establish a long term relationship with Ravan.

  7. Another proof that trees represent women - Yuddh Kand 48.37.

    Also, in this verse, Sita is described as giving way to extreme grief ... but why? Trijata had explained to Sita that Ram and Lakshman are still alive, showing her some signs of why that is the case. Sita herself referred to her own bodily signs that showed that Ram is still alive.

    In Yuddh Kand 48.35 - the translation on says that the sorrowful Sita was caused by Trijata to re-enter Lanka. But I think the translation should be - Flown by Trijata, Sita was caused to re-enter Lanka.

    So, after Trijata reassures Sita that Ram and Lakshman are alive, there is no reference to Sita being sorrowful regarding this matter, except in 48.37.

    So, in 48.37, what is Sita grieving for? Could it be for seeing the sporting grounds of Ravan and not being able to take part in the sporting?

    Not sure how you interpret, but to me it seems that Ravan is not having sex with Sita in Lanka, but Sita is desirous and even desperate for sexual pleasure with Ravan.

    This also explains why Sita was quiet and sad after the war was over and Ravan was killed. It also explains by Ram abandoned Sita after the war.

  8. You can even translate 48.35 as - poor Sita was caused by Trijata to re-enter Lanka. But, I don't think Sita was sad at that point. But, in 48.37, she is described to be extremely sad. So, her sadness may not be because of Ram and Lakshman.

    1. Rohit, you have raised some nice points. I agree with you about the "sporting grounds" comment. That is definitely a possibility.

    2. Thanks for the reply. In Yuddha kand, I have also been trying to find any hints of Sita possibly being pregnant, from intercourse with Hanuman. But, I have not been able to, so far, or possibly ever.

      The part in Yuddha kand where Sita refers to her own bodily signs indicating that Ram is alive, may be interpreted as signs of pregnancy too. But, obviously, there is nothing in Valmiki Ramayan that connects Sita's bodily signs at that juncture to possible pregnancy.

      If Sita was pregnant during Yuddha kand, she would know about it, but she does not give any such indications, except possibly what I mentioned in the above paragraph, but I don't feel that what I wrote in the above paragraph was meant to indicate pregnancy by Valmiki (those were indeed signs of her not being a widow, in my opinion).

      Maybe Hanuman did not father Sita's children. Obviously there is not reference anywhere in Valmiki Ramayan, but maybe Ravan fathered one of Sita's two sons ... just my imagination running here. The intercourse and conception could have occurred just before the war or just before Ravan was killed. Sita's rolling on the ground (referenced couple times in Yuddha kand, I think) and Yuddha kand 48.37 verse, etc., could be seen as Sita's desperate attempts to have sexual contact with Ravan, whom she felt was going to die soon at Ram's hands.

      If she indeed became pregnant by Ravan, then we can imagine that she would be sad upon hearing Ravan's death. Ram may or may not have known about the pregnancy in Lanka, but when he found out upon returning to Ayodhya, it could have given him a reason to abandon Sita again. She must have been sent to Valmiki's ashram by Ram as a therapy for getting over Ravan and to make Sita-Ravan's child eligible to rule Ayodhya in a few years (convert him from a rakshasa to a human/good person). But, again, this is just my imagination running here.

      If there is any truth to Uttar kand, then I feel that the second of Sita's two sons was born out of her sexual union with Valmiki. The second son was considered a twin of the first son, because Valmiki might have recreated the clone of the first son (carbon copy of the subtle body of the first son), then impregnated Sita to allow the subtle body (atman) of the second son to enter her womb.

      Wish IITK would finish the data entry on Uttar kand.

      BTW - please read chapters 33 and 34 of Yuddha kand. Sarama a lesbian? Had sexual relations with Sita in Lanka?

    3. Rohit,

      MN Dutt has a translation of the Uttara Kanda. You can access it here if you wish:

      I personally consider Uttara Kanda a later interpolation, so I don't think Seetha gave birth to Luva or Kusha. As for your searches of signs of Seetha's pregnancy by Hanumana in Yuddha Kanda, I don't think you would find any. The reason for that being that Seetha was in Ravana's captivity for 14 years. When Rama comes to Bharadwaja'a ashram after saving Seetha, Valmiki says:

      पूर्णे चतुर्दशे वर्षे पञ्चम्यां लक्ष्मणाग्रजः |
      भरद्वाजाश्रमं प्राप्य ववन्दे नियतो मुनिम् || ६-१२४-१

      After fourteen years were completed, and on the fifth day of the bright half of the lunar month of Ashvayuja (roughly corresponding to the month of September), Rama, who was disciplined even now, reaching the hermitage of the sage Bharadwaja, offered his salutation to the sage.

      When Hanumana met Seetha, she was in her 10th month of captivity. So if she got pregnant, she would have given birth to a child within 2 yrs of captivity, and the child would have been around 12 yrs old at the time of the Lankan war. Since details on the families of the Rakshasas are not given, we don't have any hints on whether this child even existed or not... Indonesian Ramayana mentions family details (such as Indrajit having 7 wives, etc...), but not Valmiki Ramayana.

      Yuddha Kanda Sections 33-34 suggest intense attraction between the two that IMO goes beyond mere friendship. It is clear that Sarama was attracted to the body of Seetha (and Seetha's behavior suggests vice versa as well), but I don't think there is any solid evidence of a sexual relationship.

    4. Thanks for the information Milin. I will read through Uttar kand at the above link.

      I agree with what you wrote about Sarama.

      Regarding Sita being in Ravan's captivity for 14 years ... doesn't the verse that you quoted refer to the total span of exile of Ram, which is 14 years? My understanding is that the kidnapping took place at the end of the 13th year of exile and Sita stayed in Lanka for 1 year. Then, Ram and Sita returned to Ayodhya from Lanka and stopped by at Bhardwaj's ashram.

      You have read and researched more about Ramayan than I have. Maybe my understanding is wrong about the number of years of exile and the length of time that Sita stayed in Lanka. But, I am not able to understand your explanation above.

    5. Rohit,

      It is a common misconception that Rama returned to Ayodhya after 14 years. Seetha was kidnapped after the 13th yr of exile was over, and she stayed in Lanka for 14 more years...

      If we assume the alternative theory, that is, that she stayed only for a year in the captivity of Ravana, we have some major problems. First of all, since 10 months had passed when Hanumana met Seetha, it would imply that Rama invaded Lanka in the next 2 months... When Hanumana saw Lanka, he described it as prosperous and the treasury of Ravana as being full. However, in Yuddha Kanda, Ravana tells us that the treasury of Lanka was nearly empty:

      सर्वक्षपितकोशम् च स त्वमभ्युपपद्य माम् |
      त्रायस्वेमाम् पुरीम् लङ्काम् बालवृद्धावशेषिताम् || ६-६२-१९

      "Rescuing me, whose treasury has become completely diminished, you protect this city of Lanka, where only the children and the aged are left over."

      Kumbhakarna says the same in Yuddha Kanda:

      राजशेषा कृता लङ्का क्षीणः कोशो बलम् हतम् |
      राजानमिममासाद्य सुहृच्चिह्नममित्रकम् || ६-६५-७

      "Having access to this king, who has friends merely for a name-sake as also behaving unfriendly, the treasury got depleted, the army destroyed and king alone is left the Lanka."

      So, are we to believe that the entire treasury got emptied in just 2 months? Hard to believe... Furthermore, that speech by Kumbhakarna suggests that Ravana had allies that abandoned him, leaving Ravana isolated in Lanka. Although Valmiki does not expand on this point in the epic, it is something to ponder upon. Rama had likely conquered these vassal kingdoms of Ravana prior to attacking Lanka. Also, in Yuddha Kanda Section 5, Rama laments at the fact that Seetha was aging:

      न मे दुह्खम् प्रिया दूरे न मे दुह्खम् हृता इति च |
      तद् एव अनुशोचामि वयो अस्या हि अतिवर्तते || ६-५-५

      "There is no anguish for me that my beloved is at a distance, nor that she was taken away. Her age is indeed passing away. Only about this, I am repenting."

      If she was only away from him for one year, why would he be lamenting about her passing age? How much does one really age in a single year? His speech seems to suggest that she was in Lanka for many years.

      Right after Hanumana burns Lanka, Ravana holds a sabha (Yuddha Kanda Section 6). In this sabha, Kumbakarna is not there, but the other ministers were present. We later learn in a subsequent sabha held by Ravana (in Yuddha Kanda Section 12) that Kumbhakarna was not present in the first sabha as he was sleeping for his 6 month period. However, he had woken up to meet Ravana in this second Sabha. This suggests that when this second Sabha was held, Seetha was in captivity for 1 year and 4 months (10 months + 6 months)...

      During the war against Rama, Ravana orders some people to wake up Kumbakarna. He says that Kumbhakarna went to sleep just 9 days back:

      मन्त्रम् कृत्वा प्रसुप्तोऽयमिअस्तु नवमेऽहनि || ६-६०-१७
      तम् तु बोधयत क्षिप्रम् कुम्भकर्णम् महाबलम् |

      "Having deliberated with me nine days ago, he has since fallen asleep. Awaken quickly that mighty Kumbhakarna."

      This suggests that another 6 months and 9 days had passed since the time he woke up to attend Ravana's sabha in Yuddha Kanda Section 12 and the actual war against Rama.

      So, this suggests that Seetha was in Lanka for a minimum of 1 yr, 10 months and 9 days... It probably was longer though, since this 6 month sleep/awake cycle of Kumbhakarna would have been repeated many times...

      For that reason, I would interpret the 14 yrs in the verse I posted as 14 yrs since Seetha's captivity. The verse specifically does not say "vanvaasa", so it is slightly ambiguous...

    6. Wow, I am absolutely stunned at your above reply. This is truly stunning and it turns the table on lot of my ideas about Ramayan.

      What you say seems to be true. I really wish that I could talk to you over the phone or the Internet, typing questions on a blog is very slow.

      If you ever wrote a book on Ramayan, I'd pay or it/but it.

      There are so many questions racing through my mind, but I will try and ask them below in as organized manner as I can. Please answer them at your earliest convenience, I'd love to know your answers.

      1) So, most or all of Sundar kand is telling us about the first 10 months of Sita's captivity. During this time, Sita is angry at Ravan for separating her from Ram, but she is also attracted to him. Ravan seems to be refusing sexual contact with her. Ravan is asking her to marry him, only then he will have sex with her (as her husband), Sita is refusing to marry Ravan. Then, the whole Hanuman episode occurs, as you have described, including sex between Sita and Hanuman. No pregnancy though.

      But, what is entirely unknown is what Sita does there in the remaining 13 years. You had mentioned in one of your previous blog articles that after the war is over and when Sita is brought to Ram, Valmiki describes Sita has having lived in the house of the demon for a long time, but you had mentioned that the word for house (gruh) can be translated as wife ... Sita lived as the wife of the demon for a long time.

      Sita was certainly sad after the war upon realizing the victory of Ram. So, do you think Sita married Ravan?

      2) Why do you say in you above comment - Hanuman burnt Lanka. Didn't you prove in the 2 blog articles that Hanuman did not burn Lanka? Maybe, I am missing something here.

      3) There is a common understanding that Bharat would commit suicide by entering the fire if Ram delayed his return by even one day past 14 years. Not sure if there is such a reference in Valmiki Ramayan. Can you please comment.

      I may have more questions later.

      There is a novel by Professor Navalekar on the Ramayan. I have not read it, but heard that there is good description in that novel about all the war games and strategies that Ram implemented to abolish the demons.

      4) One more question - Do you think Ram must have had constant updates on Sita during the time she lived in Lanka? Because, at the beginning of her captivity, Ram was love sick, but by the time the war was over, he doubted her chastity and abandoned her.


    7. In the above comment, I mean to type -
      If you ever wrote a book on Ramayan, I'd pay for it/buy it.

      One more question -

      5) When Hanuman enters Ashok garden in Sundar kand, he first goes through the harem and then enters the garden. When Vibhishan enters the Ashok garden to talk to Sita after the war is over, he seems to take the same route. But, just earlier, Hanuman does not seem to go through the Harem to talk to Sita after the war is over.

      IOWs, I am trying to think if there is a clue between where and how Sita was living during the first 10 months of her captivity, versus where and how she was living at the end of the war, to see if she submitted to Ravan in some form during the 14 years in Lanka.


    8. Reading some initial chapters of Yuddh kand. Is it possible that the entire Ramayan took place in on the celestial plane and not on earth planet, with a different landscape and a different scale of time?


    9. After the war, Ram does not accuse Sita of infidelity during her stay in Lanka, but during her travel/kidnapping to Lanka (harassed in the lap comment by Ram).

      Also, after reading the sections of Yuddh kand where Hanuman and Vibhishan meet Sita, it does not seem that Sita's housing or clothing have changed much since Sundar kand, so maybe she did not marry Ravan.

      I think, Ramayan is a mixture of events that partly took place in heaven and partly took place on earth and partly took place in the nether worlds.

      Hence, the confusion about treasury depletion of Ravan, Kumbhakaran's sleep cycle, Ram's comment about Sita aging.

      It may also explain how Hanuman and others were both monkey and human.

      There are obviously more details in Valmiki Ramayan compared to Tulsidas Ramayan which is what is commonly understood by the masses, but the striking difference is the moral values regarding sex. This was specifically suppressed or changed during the British rule in India.

      The old European whites, including the British who ruled India along with Catholics, were a race that was uncomfortable with sex, because they were uncomfortable with death, because they were so attached to this world.

      Hence, they developed very puritanical ideas and changed the texts to remove the kind of sexual practices that were prominent in ancient India.

    10. One of Lakshman's son's name is Angad. Angad is also the son of Vali on whose shoulders Lakshman rode to Lanka and fought the war.

      If the monkeys were indeed celestial beings ... and, it is said in Valmiki Ramayan that Viradh was Tumburu a celestial musician ... then, some of them may have impregnated Lakshman's, Bharat's, and Shatrughna's wives. It is possible that Hanuman impregnated Sita in Ayodhya.

    11. Rohit,

      1) No, I don't think Seetha married Ravana. But their relationship with akin to that between a husband and wife. She is addressed by Valmiki as the queen serpent, and she addresses Ravana in Sundara Kanda and Aranya Kanda as the king serpent, thereby suggesting some sort of intimate, husband/wife-like relationship between the two.

      2) You are right. Hanumana did not burn down Lanka. When I said burning down Lanka, I meant the narrative that most Hindus believe in. I essentially meant the period when Hanumana arrived in Lanka to find Seetha.

      3) Yes, I think there was a reference in Ayodhya Kanda for that. But I would not take it literally, as the mind of a person rarely ever remains stable for such a long time. That statement by Bharatha is just an exaggeration! Even Rama doubted him and asked Hanumana to see from the facial expressions of Bharatha whether he was willing to give the kingdom back to Rama or not. I talked about this in the Agnipariksha article.

      4) Take a look at Yuddha Kanda Section 5. Rama is still lovesick.

      The Devas, Yakshas, Gandharvas, etc... all lived on Earth, not some celestial plane. In Mahabharatha, Arjuna encounters the Gandharvas during his digvijaya. Bhima encounters the Yakshas during the 13 yr exile. Likewise, the Devas were described as ruling a kingdom on Earth, north of India. Heaven in the epics was not some territory outside of Earth, but instead a very prosperous land, on Earth.

  9. If you read Yuddh kand chapter 114, Ram seems to be treating Sita as the wife of the enemy king that he just killed, not as his own wife that he has rescued.

    He asked her to dress-up before she comes to meet him, he shows unhappiness because she came in a palaquin guarded by demons, Ram allowed monkeys and demons to see her in public (justified because of wartime), he says that Sita is in a lot of distress and difficulty.

    114.17 verse uses the word raksho-gruh. Raksho is plural for demons. So, it can mean either house of demons or wife of demons. You had mentioned this verse in your agneepariksha blog article.

    Not sure, which is more appropriate - wife of demons or house of demons. Since Lanka is always referred to as house of Ravan, I'd think wife of demons is more appropriate here. As Ravan had mentioned couple times in Sundar kand to Sita - that Sita will sport with her relatives in Lanka, so it means that Sita was not only living in Lanka as wife of Ravan but also has wife of Ravan's other male family members.

    I read some chapters at the end of Ayodhya kand and the beginning of Aranya kand. It seems that Sita was kidnapped soon after exile from Ayodhya, say in a year or two. So, she lived in Lanka for 12-13 years, my guess is 12 years.

    It took many years for Ram to finally kill Ravan after the kidnapping incidence. Hence, treasury depleted, Sita feared to have aged, Kumbhkaran's sleep cycle dispute, etc.

    But, in Yuddh kand, Ravan refers couple times that after tricking Sita, she will now submit to him and become his wife, so that is confusing and in contrast to what I wrote above. But, this could simply be the distinction between having sexual hunger fulfilled and getting married.

    I think, lot of material has been taken out from Valmiki Ramayan to conceal what Sita did for years in Lanka.

    Also what is confusing is - Hanuman meets Sita in Ashok garden, but no mention of Ashok garden when Vibhishan meets Sita ... both meetings after the war is over.

    During Yuddh kand, it is described multiple times that Sita is in Ashok garden and not exactly in Ravan's harem.

    Lots of changes and deletions made to Valmiki Ramayan over the last few centuries.

    My guess is - Sita lived in Lanka for 12 years, had some sexual relationships with Ravan and other demons, was treated as Ravan's wife by Ram at the end of the war and was then abandoned.

  10. Thanks Milin, for your reply on 10/20/17. I agree with your 1st and 2nd points, as well as the 4th point.

    The key to understanding or unraveling the mystery of Sita in Ramayan is, the length of time that she spent in Lanka. You are absolutely correct and presented the right proofs to show that she spent a considerably more amount of time in Lanka compared to what people normally believe.

    I have been studying Yuddh kand in Valmiki Ramayan with above point in mind. Here is my summary on what transpired. Just wanted to lay it out for you and other readers.

    Between the time Hanuman left Lanka (end of Sundar kand) and the time Ram and his army arrived in Lanka, there is no reference whatsoever to Sita or what she did in Lanka. Between the time Ram arrived in Lanka and the war was over, there are 2 major incidences involving Sita (illusory head-bow episode and Indrajit making Ram and Lakshman unconscious). I will lay these 2 points briefly below -

    In 31.11, 12 - Sita is sitting in the Ashok garden on the ground with her head bent in thoughts about Ram and is in grief. Why? She should be happy that her husband has arrived to rescue her, I can understand that she may be nervous about the impending war, but grieving? In this chapter, Ravan continues expressing his desire that Sita become his wife/marry him. In chapter 32, Sita is quite miserable seeing the head and bow of Ram and is very emotional for Ram and blames herself (calls herself unfortunate). In chapter 34, Sarama offers Sita to deliver message to Ram, Sita instead asks her to find out what Ravan is doing now and whether or not he intends to release her to Ram. That is strange, why isn't she eager to send a message to Ram? Why does she care what Ravan is doing, she should be sure of and hoping that Ram kills Ravan for the kidnapping and the seeming harassment in Ashok garden by Ravan to Sita. In 34.10, Sita says that her mind is not alright staying in Ashok garden due to Ravan's negative behavior. But, if she spent a long time in Lanka, could she or any person withstand such distress for such a long duration? There is a distinct impression delivered to the reader that things are exactly as they used to be in Sundar kand. But, I don't think that things remained exactly the same between end of Sundar kand and beginning of Yuddh kand.

    At the beginning of chapter 47, Ravan is no longer wishing that Sita become his wife/marry him. In verses 8-10, he is simply desiring that Sita attend to him (sexually) and sit on his genitals wearing only jewels (no clothes). Official translation on is incorrect. In chapter 48, Sita is again overly emotional for Ram and Lakshman believing them to be dead. At the end of this chapter, she goes back to the sporting ground of Ravan and gives to extreme grief. But, why grieve? Earlier, Trijata convinces her that Ram is alive, Sita sees her own bodily signs that point to Ram being alive, and she was tricked similarly, just a few chapters ago with the illusory head-bow episode. So, why grieve?

    There are no explicit answers to these doubts and questions in Valmiki Ramayan. But, I will explain my thinking in the following comment.

  11. Before the war, when Ravan's grandfather, mother, I think an older minister as well, etc., are giving advice to return Sita to Ram, nobody presents the following logic to Ravan, Ravan himself does not mention the following argument -

    Why is Ravan ready to fight a war and kill himself and get other demons killed and destroy Lanka for a woman who is not even allowing you to touch her, let alone marry her?

    Let us assume that Sita lived in Lanka for 12 years (common understanding is 12 months). There was a rule in Dharma and in social practice that if a person obtains the wife of another, then the husband has 12 months to regain her, else the ownership switches to the other man. Also, Ravan was the king of Lanka. Also, Sita was attracted to Ravan as shown in Aranya kand, they even had foreplay and sex on route to Lanka, as described in Aranya kand.

    Keeping above in mind, my feeling is that after 12 months since kidnapping were completed, Sita realized that Ram is not coming. She expected Ram to come rescue her within 12 months of her kidnapping, she says that to Hanuman in Sundar kand. What was she going to do after 12 months? Although, she did not marry Ravan and still loved Ram, but keeping the reality of living in Lanka, in mind, she must have submitted to Ravan, moved into his palace and even sat on his genitals wearing only jewels, for 10+ years. As Milin mentioned, Ram, when he was at the sea shore on the other side of Lanka is not worried about anything else about Sita except her age. So, he must have known that Sita was enjoying herself with Ravan for all these years. Now, all this should make sense.

    Once Sita heard that Ram has arrived in Lanka, after all these years, she must have become worried. She wanted to be with Ravan and enjoy with him, but also loved her husband Ram and she figured she would go back to him if Ram wins the war and she knew he would win the war. So, she was hoping that Ravan would return her back, peacefully, to Ram, so that he would become and ally of Ram and then she can continue having a relationship with Ravan. She did not want Ravan to die, nor did she want the sporting in Ashok garden to end (with Ravan).

    Milin has already described Sita's behavior after the war is over. The only 2 things that I will add are -

    1) Sita indeed took some time to recollect and remember Hanuman when he meets her after the war. It had been more than a decade since she last saw him.

    2) Sita appears shy (lajja) when she first appears before Ram, after the war. Because, she is somebody else's (not Ram's) mistress, until Ram accepts her or accepts her back, which he does not do immediately.

    Ram's reasons for not accepting Sita after the war, also make sense now. His reasons were - she was harassed in the lap of Ravan during kidnapping and she lived for a long time in Ravan's house. Both of which are true or valid reasons. It has been discussed quite deeply on this blog about the meeting of Sita and Ravan in the jungles before the kidnapping, and the foreplay & sex between Sita and Ravan during the kidnapping.

  12. Also, want to add - after Sita found out that Ram is camped outside Lanka, she must have moved out of Ravan's palace, back into Ashok garden, she must have stopped all sex and relationship with Ravan, hence Ravan's threats to her resumed, just like at the end of Sundar kand.

  13. Hi there I am eager to know the truth of agnipariksha of sita.what was the reality.

    1. My reading suggests that Lakshmana symbolically represents Agni and that after Rama abandoned Seetha and asked her to go and marry Lakshmana, Bharatha, Shatrughna, Sugriva or Vibhishana. Seetha behaved in sync with Rama's advice and was willing to take Lakshmana for her protector. But Lakshmana, behaving symbolically as Agni Deva, told Rama that Seetha was pure and then an emotional Rama accepted Seetha and went back to Lanka with Seetha, who no longer loved Rama as much as she did in her pre-kidnap days...

      This is a summarized version, but I intend to finish up that post in the future.

  14. Hey Milin - I think Hanuman and Sita had sex multiple times over several days in Ravan's harem. Check out the listing of Sundar kand verses below.

    As you have stated in this blog article, Hanuman had sex with many women in Ravan's harem/garden prior to meeting Sita. Then, he had sex with Sita, then he had sex with more women in Ravan's garden. How many times can a person have sex in one night?

    I think, Sita kept him in hiding in the harem/garden, for many days. It is not uncommon for queens/princesses to hide men in their chamber. Sita probably did that in Mithila and Ayodhya, so she knows how to do it.

    Each night, Hanuman would think of leaving and going back to Ram, and each time Sita would create an emotional drama to make Hanuman stay for one more night and satisfy her, until a saturation point was reached, from Hanuman's side, I don't think on Sita's side.

    Let me know what you think, please.

    20.6: Ravan refuses to have sex with Sita any further, no matter how much he desires her.

    20.29: Sita is smiling and still trying to attract Ravan to herself. Throughout chapter 20, Sita is exposing her body and trying to attract Ravan.

    35.85, 86: Sita seems to be sexually excited, probably had sex with Hanuman.

    35.88: Hanuman says to Sita that he is going back (leaving Lanka) now.

    36.2: Hanuman gives Ram's ring to Sita.

    36.5, 6: Sita-Hanuman sex.

    37.8: Sita indicates 10 months have elapsed since her kidnapping by Ravan.

    37.28: Sita sexually thrilled at the prospect of mounting on Hanuman's back.

    Then, it is described that Hanuman increased his form, probably a modification to the original text, he probably increased his genitals even after recent sexual act and showed his manly strength to give confidence to Sita for another sexual act in quick succession.

    End of 37: Sita says to Hanuman - make me joyful now, they probably had sex at this point.

    End of 38: Hanuman set out for his return journey.

    39.5: Hanuman ready to go back.

    39.20, 21: Sita invites Hanuman to spend one more night with her (for sex), the word 'saanidhya' is used.

    39.47: Hanuman makes up his mind to go back.

    40.2: Sita is sexually thrilled to receive "rain" (white precipitation) from Hanuman.

    40.3: Sita demands even more sex from Hanuman.

    40.19: Hanuman decides to go back.

    40.27: Hanuman decides that "only a little remains to be done", he decides to leave. Seems like the sex between them has reached a saturation point, Hanuman is probably more saturated than Sita, he seems to be the kind that doesn't have an emotional relationship with a woman, but changes partners quite rapidly for shallow sexual pleasure only.

    40.1, 2: Sita "honored" (wink wink) Hanuman as he was ready to leave. Having attained full satisfaction with multiple sexual acts with Sita over several days, Hanuman decides to go into an "open assault" mode on other women of Lanka.

    I missed it now, but I thought I read in the past on that Sita indicated only a month is left until completion of 1 year since kidnapping, so Hanuman enjoyed Sita (and, vice versa) for a month.

    1. Rohit, you did make some good points. I always interpreted the verse about 1 month as Seetha trying to rush Rama into attacking Lanka quickly, so that her political purpose behind orchestrating her kidnap could be quickly accomplished. But your comment made me rethink my opinion. Looking at the critical edition, we see that first Seetha mentions 2 months, and then a couple sections later, she mentions 1 month to Hanumana.

      When Hanumana returns to his Vanara friends, he tells them that Seetha told him she only has 2 months left for her to survive. But when he meets Sugriva, Lakshmana, and Rama, he tells them that she only has 1 month of life left...

      At the end of Section 35, we see Hanumana saying that he will return back to Kishkindha. I don't think he really wanted to return back then, but rather pretended to leave, so that Seetha would act quickly... Then he gives the ring to her, which as I mentioned in this post, symbolizes sex...

      I had one of my old Quora accounts banned by the moderation, so I have decided to upload some of the rather good-quality answers I wrote to this blog. I uploaded most of them yesterday... One more is left now, which I will probably upload by the end of today. You might want to go through them, if you are interested.

  15. Thanks Milin for your reply. I am also thankful to you, as always, for putting up the Q&A from Quora on this blog. I read some of them, but would like to spend more time reading the Ramayana articles in detail.

    It is good that you created this blog, that way there is independence and freedom to express the ideas. You can happily bid goodbye to Quora.

    I will make some comments here -

    1) In Valmiki Ramayana, it seems that events are described on 2 different planes. There is a divine plan of Lord Ram and Sita to eliminate Ravan, then there is the actual implementation on the ground of that plan. Hence, it gets confusing. So, it is true that Sita wants Ram to come soon to Lanka and eliminate Ravan, but that is the divine schema, but on the ground, how do you make it happen? Maybe, I will elaborate in my future comments after reading the recent Ramayana blog articles.

    2) I agree with your analysis of the Pandavas sharing Draupadi simultaneously. Just because one Pandava had sex with her for one year, it does not mean that he will not want to have sex with her for 4 more years. And, why should he wait 4 years? He is her husband, he shouldn't have to wait. I'd love to have been a fly on the wall when the Pandavas were enjoying her together.

    3) Arjun is Krishna's chidabhasa. Pure/witness consciousness (Krishna) and subject consciousness that is attached to or aware of objects/object consciousness. Krishna is the paramatma seated inside Arjun. No wonder they had a strong relationship. We too can have such a relationship with the paramatma seated in our heart.

    Looking forward to reading your recently posted Ramayana articles.

    1. Rohit,

      I don't necessarily agree that the events are described on 2 different planes (or to be specific, the divine plane). The devas resided in Uttara Kuru, a territory right at the point where Southern Russia meets with the Xinjiang province of China. Ravana conquered these devas, hence they wanted to regain independence through the help of Rama. They played a role in Seetha's kidnap, and they participated in the Lankan war. Rama and Seetha's actions are on a very human level. Seetha tries to provoke Rama's manliness throughout her entire speech to Hanumana (especially the story of the crow piercing her chest and being punished for that by Rama). Through such speech, once Rama's manliness is attacked, he would exert his 100% in war... and that is exactly what happened...

      Seetha tells Hanumana:

      नित्यम् उत्साह युक्ताः च वाचः श्रुत्वा मया ईरिताः |
      वर्धिष्यते दाशरथेः पौरुषम् मत् अवाप्तये || ५-३९-११

      "Constantly hearing the words endowed with energy spoken by you, Rama's manly strength will be intensified to recover me."

      मत् संदेश युता वाचः त्वत्तः श्रुत्वा एव राघवः |
      पराक्रम विधिम् वीरो विधिवत् सम्विधास्यति || ५-३९-१२

      'Hearing the words containing my message from you, the valiant Rama will duly set his heart in exercising his strength."

    2. Thanks for your reply Milin. The reason that I was suspecting that Ramayan happened on 2 different planes - some of the happenings are not possible on the earth planet. How did Hanuman fly/leap 100 yojan ocean to reach Lanka? During the battle of Ram and Ravan, it is said that Indra's charioteer Matali provided help to Ram. How does Matali all of a sudden appear on the battlefield and that too with a chariot for Ram? Did he come to Lanka along with Ram and the monkeys? How did Vibhishan cross the ocean and travel from Lanka to the other side of the ocean where Ram was stationed? When Ravan was about to kidnap Sita, he changed his form from a Brahmin to what he really looked like. How did that happen?

      Just near to this earth/material plane, there is a bhav plane (emotional plane). It is exactly like the earth, except very subtle in nature. Most people, after they die, get this bhav body and live for some time in this plane, then they come back to the earthly/physical plane.

      If you close your eyes and imagine yourself (your body) to have wings and imagine yourself to be flying, then on which plane is that imagination occuring? Granted that it is going on in your mind, but it is in a different plane than the earthly plane, no?

      I feel that there is a lot of bhav/emotion/bhakti involved with many characters in the Ramayan, so it is possible they were living in a different plane and participating in the Ramayan from that plane.

      Even outside of Ramayan - and this is a serious question to you or anybody who knows this ... how many warriors took part in the Mahabharat war? The present field of Kurukshetra cannot hold that many warriors.

      If somebody recites the Gita, then it will take 3-4 hours minimum. So, the Pandavas risked being attacked and destroyed by the Kauravas at the very onset of the war while Krishna and Arjun were busy chatting philosophy for so many hours? I don't think that the Gita was spoken between 2 souls like how 2 human beings would talk to each other. The dialogue must have occurred in a matter of moments, on a different plane of existence, where the talk is yogic and between 2 minds, no words necessary.

      Coming back to Ramayan, which species on earth can change forms like Marich did and that too into a golden deer?

      The other plane of existence is probably not divine, but doesn't seem like planet earth to me.

      Sorry, I understand your above comment, but I am just genuinely laying out my feelings here.

    3. Regarding your specification about where on planet earth was heaven, etc. located - my understanding is that over the last few centuries, many bhakti saints recreated the place/location of where important events took place in history, on earth. These events actually took place on a different plane of existence, but the saints recreated them on earth.

      I have heard that the current Vrindavan in India was a re-creation on planet earth, of that place where Krishna danced with the gopis on a different plane of existence.

  16. Are Randi KI aulaad h tu
    Apnu Amma se puch Tere baap ka naam
    U r a son of whore

  17. Teri Amma KI chut ka bhosda
    Teri behen ko suar chose
    Teri behen ko kutra chose
    Hindu Dharm ka uphaas krta h
    Randi KI aulaad