Thursday, 22 March 2018

What were the names of the 100 Kauravas, also why only Duryodhana and Dushasasan are famous? And were all the Kauravas killed in the battle?

My Answer:
We are given two passages in Mahabharatha where the names of the Kauravas are given. What is surprising is that there are differences in the list of names between the two passages. You can make your pick on which list of names is more authentic. I will just provide the two passages…
The first passage is as follows:
"Janamejaya said, 'O illustrious one, tell me the names of Dhritarashtra's sons according to the order of their birth beginning from the eldest.'
"Vaisampayana said, 'O king, they are as follows: Duryodhana, and Yuyutsu, and also Duhsasana; Duhsaha and Duhshala, and then Durmukha; Vivinsati, and Vikarna, Jalasandha, Sulochna, Vinda and Anuvinda, Durdharsha, Suvahu, Dushpradharshana; Durmarshana, and Dushkarna, and Karna; Chitra and Vipachitra, Chitraksha, Charuchitra, and Angada, Durmada, and Dushpradharsha, Vivitsu, Vikata, Sama; Urananabha, and Padmanabha, Nanda and Upanandaka; Sanapati, Sushena, Kundodara; Mahodara; Chitravahu, and Chitravarman, Suvarman, Durvirochana; Ayovahu, Mahavahu, Chitrachapa and Sukundala, Bhimavega, Bhimavala, Valaki, Bhimavikrama, Ugrayudha, Bhimaeara, Kanakayu, Dridhayudha, Dridhavarman, Dridhakshatra Somakirti, Anadara; Jarasandha, Dridhasandha, Satyasandha, Sahasravaeh; Ugrasravas, Ugrasena, and Kshemamurti; Aprajita, Panditaka, Visalaksha, Duradhara, Dridhahasta, and Suhasta, Vatavega, and Suvarchasa; Adityaketu, Vahvasin, Nagadatta and Anuyaina; Nishangi, Kuvachi, Dandi, Dandadhara, Dhanugraha; Ugra, Bhimaratha, Vira, Viravahu, Alolupa; Abhaya, and Raudrakarman, also he who was Dridharatha; Anadhrishya, Kundaveda, Viravi, Dhirghalochana; Dirghavahu; Mahavahu; Vyudhoru, Kanakangana; Kundaja and Chitraka. There was also a daughter named Duhsala who was over and above the hundred. And Yuyutsu who was Dhritarashtra's son by a Vaisya wife, was also over and above the hundred. Thus, O king, have I recited the names of the hundred sons and also that of the daughter (of Dhritarashtra). Thou hast now known their names according to the order of their births.
And here is the second passage:
"Janamejaya said, 'Please recite the names of Dhritarashtra's sons according to the order of their birth.'
"Vaisampayana said, 'Their names, O king, according to the order of birth, are Duryodhana, Yuyutsu, Duhsasana, Duhsaha, Duhsala, Jalasandha, Sama, Saha, Vinda and Anuvinda, Durdharsha, Suvahu, Dushpradharshana, Durmarshana and Durmukha, Dushkarna, and Karna; Vivinsati and Vikarna, Sala, Satwa, Sulochana, Chitra and Upachitra, Chitraksha, Charuchitra, Sarasana, Durmada and Durvigaha, Vivitsu, Vikatanana; Urnanabha and Sunabha, then Nandaka and Upanandaka; Chitravana, Chitravarman, Suvarman, Durvimochana; Ayovahu, Mahavahu, Chitranga, Chitrakundala, Bhimavega, Bhimavala, Balaki, Balavardhana, Ugrayudha; Bhima, Karna, Kanakaya, Dridhayudha, Dridhavarman, Dridhakshatra, Somakitri, Anudara; Dridhasandha, Jarasandha, Satyasandha, Sada, Suvak, Ugrasravas, Ugrasena, Senani, Dushparajaya, Aparajita, Kundasayin, Visalaksha, Duradhara; Dridhahasta, Suhasta, Vatavega, and Suvarchas; Adityaketu, Vahvashin, Nagadatta, Agrayayin; Kavachin, Krathana, Kunda, Kundadhara, Dhanurdhara; the heroes, Ugra and Bhimaratha, Viravahu, Alolupa; Abhaya, and Raudrakarman, and Dridharatha; Anadhrishya, Kundabhedin, Viravi, Dhirghalochana Pramatha, and Pramathi and the powerful Dhirgharoma; Dirghavahu, Mahavahu, Vyudhoru, Kanakadhvaja; Kundasi and Virajas. Besides these hundred sons, there was a daughter named Duhsala. All were heroes and Atirathas, and were well-skilled in warfare. All were learned in the Vedas, and all kinds of weapons. And, O, king, worthy wives were in time selected for all of them by Dhritarashtra after proper examination. And king Dhritarashtra, O monarch, also bestowed Duhsala, in proper time and with proper rites, upon Jayadratha (the king of Sindhu).'
Now for why only Duryodhana and Dushasana were famous. Most people only know about those two because they were involved the most in the epic, from the Kaurava side, in conspiring against the Pandavas. However, in the actual epic, there were four Kauravas that were the most famous, in comparison to the rest of the Kauravas:
And amongst those hundred sons of Dhritarashtra, four became celebrated. They are Duryodhana, Duhsasana, Vikarna, and Chitrasena.
Also, only eleven of the 101 Kauravas were Maharathas. The rest were not as accomplished in weapons, and hence were not very well known throughout the epic:
And amongst those hundred and one, eleven, viz., Duhsasana, Duhsaha, Durmarshana, Vikarna, Chitrasena, Vivinsati, Jaya, Satyavrata, Purumitra, and Yuyutsu by a Vaisya wife, were all Maharathas (great car-warriors).
All of the Kauravas, barring Yuyutsu, who joined the Pandavas in the Kurukshetra war, were supposedly killed by Bhima. However, we have some evidence that Arjuna killed 10 of the Kauravas:
"'With Bhimasena's leave, Dhananjaya then proceeded (once more against his foes), causing the earth and the welkin, O Bharata, to resound with the rattle of his car. He was then surrounded by ten heroic and foremost of warriors, viz., thy sons, all of whom were Duhshasana's juniors in age. Afflicting Arjuna with their shafts like hunters afflicting an elephant with burning brands, those heroes, with outstretched bow, seemed to dance, O Bharata, (on their cars). The slayer of Madhu then, guiding his, car placed all of them to his right. Indeed, he expected that Arjuna would very soon send all of them to Yama's presence. Beholding Arjuna's car proceeding in a different direction, those heroes rushed towards him. Soon, however, Partha, with a number of cloth-yard shafts and crescent-shaped arrows, cut off their standards and steeds and bows and arrows, causing them to fall down on the earth. Then with some broad-headed arrows he cut off and felled their heads decked with lips bit and eyes blood-red in rage. Those faces looked beautiful like an assemblage of lotuses. Having slain those ten Kauravas cased in golden mail, with ten broad-headed shafts endued with great, impetuosity and equipped with wings of gold that slayer of foes, Arjuna continued to proceed.'"
Hence, it would seem that Bhima killed 90 of the Kauravas, Arjuna killed 10 of them, and Yuyutsu was the only Kaurava that survived the Kurukshetra war.

Image result for kauravas

[Image Source: Legend Of Kauravas – Ancient Cloning And Test Tube Babies In India?]

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